Monday, February 29, 2016

Trump is the man we need.

Trump truly loves this country and
who I feel would be a
great President.
Make America Great Again
February 28th, 2016
Today Donald J. Trump received the endorsement of Alabama Senator Jeff Sessions. Senator Sessions is widely recognized as the nation's most highly respected official on the issue of illegal immigration.

Mr. Trump stated, “I am deeply honored to have the endorsement of Senator Jeff Sessions, leader of congressional conservatives. He has been called the Senate's indispensable man and the gold standard. He led the fight against the Gang of Eight, against Obama's trade deal, against Obama's judges, and for American sovereignty. He has stood up to special interests as few have. There is no more respected man in Congress and we are closely aligned on many issues, including trade and illegal immigration, and I am proud to consider Jeff Sessions an advisor, friend and ally.” 


 Senator Sessions added, “I am thrilled today to offer my endorsement of Donald J. Trump for President. This election is our last chance to save U.S. sovereignty and to end the domination of the political establishment over the interests of working Americans. Trump alone has rejected the donor class, defending America’s jobs and wages from open borders, uncontrolled immigration and the massive Trans-Pacific Partnership that will cede U.S. authority to foreign powers. Trump’s trade and immigration plans will revitalize our shrinking middle class, keeping jobs and wealth and income inside the United States of America. Trump understands that a nation must always place the interests of its own people first.  We are nearing fast the point of no return. The people are hurting. Their wages are declining. Their schools are overburdened. Their hospitals are stretched past the breaking point. Crime is up, and community confidence is down. Americans of all backgrounds and ethnicities, immigrant and US-born, are crying out for leadership that puts their needs first, that takes care of those living and dreaming here today, leadership that understands that there is no constituency other than the American constituency. Mr. Trump is that leader.   We are witnessing an incredible movement, arising from the people.   The events of history have aligned to give the people this fleeting chance to bust up the oligarchy – to take back control from the ‘Masters of the Universe’ return it to the good and decent and patriotic citizens of the United States.” 


The American Dreamer- Donald Trump Rally Entrance Song
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZVjgz9myypM
Our next President and First Lady
 
 

Donald J. Trump Endorsed by Benghazi Heroes Mark Geist and John Tiegen

(New York, NY) February 28th, 2016 - Today Donald J. Trump received the endorsement of two true American heroes, who fought against all odds in a hostile foreign land, to save more than twenty-five American lives. Mark “OZ” Geist and John “TIG” Tiegen are two of the individuals responsible for the defense and rescue of dozens of Americans during the terror attacks on the U.S. consulate and at the CIA compound in Benghazi.

Mr. Trump stated, “I am truly honored to have the support of these American heroes, the best of their generation. The American people can know with certainty, I will always place their interest above all else. I am the most militaristic person and it is so important to me to strengthen our military and protect American families and freedoms.”

Mark "OZ" Geist said, "We, perhaps more than any Americans, know the absolute and imperative reason that we elect Donald J. Trump as President of the United States. First and foremost, under a Trump administration, the request for additional security by an ambassador would have been heeded, and second, there is no question, when the attack came,he would have moved heaven and earth to provide the necessary forces to protect and reinforce our warriors. Mr. Trump is the bold, decisive leader America needs at this time". Oz added, "Under President Trump, many conflicts will be avoided because our enemies will fear the United States and our military."

John Tiegen added, "It is very clear to see the groundswell of support, never seen before in recent politics. Americans want a strong leader, one who cares more about the safety and freedom of the American people than he does winning elections, or what the press might think. In honor of those we have fought with, I am proud to endorse the next President of the United States, Donald J. Trump.” 
 
Our next First Lady

Put American Workers First

Decades of disastrous trade deals and immigration policies have destroyed our middle class. Today, nearly 40% of black teenagers are unemployed. Nearly 30% of Hispanic teenagers are unemployed. For black Americans without high school diplomas, the bottom has fallen out: more than 70% were employed in 1960, compared to less than 40% in 2000. Across the economy, the percentage of adults in the labor force has collapsed to a level not experienced in generations. As CBS news wrote in a piece entitled “America’s incredible shrinking middle class”: “If the middle-class is the economic backbone of America, then the country is developing osteoporosis.”
The influx of foreign workers holds down salaries, keeps unemployment high, and makes it difficult for poor and working class Americans – including immigrants themselves and their children – to earn a middle class wage. Nearly half of all immigrants and their US-born children currently live in or near poverty, including more than 60 percent of Hispanic immigrants. Every year, we voluntarily admit another 2 million new immigrants, guest workers, refugees, and dependents, growing our existing all-time historic record population of 42 million immigrants. We need to control the admission of new low-earning workers in order to: help wages grow, get teenagers back to work, aid minorities’ rise into the middle class, help schools and communities falling behind, and to ensure our immigrant members of the national family become part of the American dream.

Additionally, we need to stop giving legal immigrant visas to people bent on causing us harm. From the 9/11 hijackers, to the Boston Bombers, and many others, our immigration system is being used to attack us. The President of the immigration caseworkers union declared in a statement on ISIS: “We've become the visa clearinghouse for the world.”
Here are some additional specific policy proposals for long-term reform:
Increase prevailing wage for H-1Bs. We graduate two times more Americans with STEM degrees each year than find STEM jobs, yet as much as two-thirds of entry-level hiring for IT jobs is accomplished through the H-1B program. More than half of H-1B visas are issued for the program's lowest allowable wage level, and more than eighty percent for its bottom two. Raising the prevailing wage paid to H-1Bs will force companies to give these coveted entry-level jobs to the existing domestic pool of unemployed native and immigrant workers in the U.S., instead of flying in cheaper workers from overseas. This will improve the number of black, Hispanic and female workers in Silicon Valley who have been passed over in favor of the H-1B program. Mark Zuckerberg’s personal Senator, Marco Rubio, has a bill to triple H-1Bs that would decimate women and minorities.
Requirement to hire American workers first. Too many visas, like the H-1B, have no such requirement. In the year 2015, with 92 million Americans outside the workforce and incomes collapsing, we need companies to hire from the domestic pool of unemployed. Petitions for workers should be mailed to the unemployment office, not USCIS.
End welfare abuse. Applicants for entry to the United States should be required to certify that they can pay for their own housing, healthcare and other needs before coming to the U.S.
Jobs program for inner city youth. The J-1 visa jobs program for foreign youth will be terminated and replaced with a resume bank for inner city youth provided to all corporate subscribers to the J-1 visa program.
Refugee program for American children. Increase standards for the admission of refugees and asylum-seekers to crack down on abuses. Use the monies saved on expensive refugee programs to help place American children without parents in safer homes and communities, and to improve community safety in high crime neighborhoods in the United States.
Immigration moderation. Before any new green cards are issued to foreign workers abroad, there will be a pause where employers will have to hire from the domestic pool of unemployed immigrant and native workers. This will help reverse women's plummeting workplace participation rate, grow wages, and allow record immigration levels to subside to more moderate historical averages.

Donald J. Trump Endorsed by New Jersey Governor Chris Christie

Mr. Trump Receives Coveted Endorsement Days Before Super Tuesday(New York, NY) February 26th, 2016 - Today Donald J. Trump received the coveted endorsement of highly respected New Jersey Governor Chris Christie at a campaign rally in Fort Worth, TX.   Mr. Trump stated, “It is my great honor to receive the endorsement of the Governor. We have had a wonderful relationship for many years. He is a solid person that I have tremendous respect for. I am really proud to receive the support of the Governor and his family.”

Governor Christie, who ended his Presidential bid earlier this month following the New Hampshire primary added, “Donald is a leader. He is a successful person that, like me, isn’t afraid to tell it like it is. Our system is broken and it won’t be fixed from the inside. I am proud to offer my endorsement of his candidacy for President.”

Mr. Trump has also been endorsed by Congressmen Chris Collins, Congressman Duncan Hunter, Jr., former Governor of Alaska Sarah Palin, South Carolina Lt. Governor Henry McMaster, Arizona Treasurer Jeff DeWitt and Maine Governor Paul LePage. 

Donald J. Trump Endorsed by Maricopa County Arizona Sheriff Joe Arpaio

(New York, NY) January 26th, 2016 – Today Donald J. Trump received Sheriff Joe Arpaio’s endorsement. The Sheriff is well known for his hard-line stance on illegal immigration. Sheriff Arpaio joined Mr. Trump at his rally in Marshalltown, Iowa to voice his support less than one week before the Iowa Caucus.  Mr. Trump stated, “I have great respect for Sheriff Arpaio. We must restore law and order on the border and respect the men and women of our police forces. I thank him for his support of my policies and candidacy for President.”
 
Sheriff Arpaio added, “Donald Trump is a leader. He produces results and is ready to get tough in order to protect American jobs and families. I have fought on the front lines to prevent illegal immigration. I know Donald Trump will stand with me and countless Americans to secure our border. I am proud to support him as the best candidate for President of the United States of America.”

Sunday, August 23, 2015

Bad Deal with Iran - Congress needs to just say no.


Lets just approve the Iran Deal -- Really, what difference does it make ....
•Organizations Supporting Terrorist Organizations
•Iranian Committee for the Reconstruction of Lebanon: Channels Iranian material and financial support for Hezbollah.
•Imam Khomeini Relief Committee (IKRC) Lebanon Branch: Helped fund Hezbollah youth training camps to recruit future Hezbollah members and operatives. Hezbollah leaders acknowledge IKRC is funded by Iran.
Read more: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tehranbureau/2010/11/iran-primer-timeline-of-us-sanctions.html#ixzz3jfOeohCi

•Hushang Allahdad: IRGC-Qods Force financial officer. Oversees distribution of funds to Hezbollah, Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad.
•Hossein Musavi: Qods Force General and Commander of Ansar Corps. Provides financial and material support to the Taliban.
•Hasan Mortezavi: Qods Force Colonel. Provides financial and material support to the Taliban.
•Mohammad Reza Zahedi: Qods Force commander in Lebanon. Acted as liaison to Hezbollah and Syrian intelligence services.
•Hessam Khoshnevis: Director of the Iranian Committee for the Reconstruction of Lebanon. Provides financial, material, and technological support to Hezbollah.
•Ali Zuraik: Director of the Imam Khomeini Relief Committee Lebanon branch. Provides financial and material support to Hezbollah.
•Razi Musavi: Syria-based Iranian official. Provides financial and material support to Hezbollah.
Read more: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tehranbureau/2010/11/iran-primer-timeline-of-us-sanctions.html#ixzz3jfOLeor6

Company that makes the IED's and explosively formed penetrators," or EFPs
In 2006, the British newspaper, The Telegraph, revealed that three Iranian factories were “mass producing” the roadside EFP bombs used to kill soldiers in Iraq. “The factories are in the Lavizan neighborhood in northern Teheran which is controlled by the country’s defense ministry,” The Telegraph wrote.  “The Sattari Industry specializes in anti-tank mines and operates under the aegis of the IRGC’s al-Quds or Jerusalem Force.” 15

Raymond Tanter of the Iran Policy Committee -- 2006 U.S. Newswire
"The Ordnance Factories Complex is located in the Lavizan neighborhood in northern Tehran and consists of three separate and independent industrial sections called Sattari, Sayad Shirazi, and Shiroodi, each with its own products. Sattari Industry specializes in anti- tank mines and bombs.
The industry works on turning mines and bombs into improvised explosive devices."
Tanter also said: "Intelligence reports received from reliable sources inside Iran indicate that powerful explosively formed projectiles (EFPs), shaped charges, used against the multinational force in Iraq are built under a confidential order by the Qods (Jerusalem) Force in Iran.

Explosively formed projectiles are advanced improvised explosive devices that are harder to detect, can penetrate thicker armor, and are more lethal than traditional IEDs. The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps Qods Force places its orders with the Ordnance Factories Complex."

DEPARTMENT OF STATE
[Public Notice 8182] Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation Imposition of
Nonproliferation Measures on Chinese and Iranian Foreign Persons
AGENCY: Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Department of State.
ACTION: Notice.
SUMMARY: The U.S. Government has determined that a number of Chinese and Iranian foreign persons have engaged in proliferation activities that warrant the imposition of measures pursuant to Executive Order 12938 of November 14, 1994, as amended by Executive Order 13094 of July 28, 1998 and Executive Order 13382 of June 28, 2005. DATES: Effective Date: February 11, 2013.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: On general issues: Pam Durham, Office of Missile, Biological, and Chemical Nonproliferation, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Department of State
(202–647–4930). On import ban issues, Rochelle Stern, Director Policy Planning and Program Management, Office of Foreign Assets Control, Department of the Treasury (202–622–2500). On U.S. Government procurement ban issues:
Eric Moore, Office of the Procurement Executive, Department of State (703–875–4079).
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the authorities vested in the President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.)
(IEEPA), the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2    751 et seq.), and Section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and Executive Order 12938
of November 14, 1994, as amended, the U.S. Government determined on December 21, 2012 that the following Chinese and Iranian foreign persons have engaged in proliferation activities that warrant the imposition of measures pursuant to sections 4(b), 4(c), and 4(d) of Executive Order 12938:
Dalian Sunny Industries (China);
Li Fangwei (China) [also known as: Karl Lee];
Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces Logistics (MODAFL) (Iran);
Shahid Bakeri Industrial Group (SBIG) (Iran); and
Shahid Sattari Ground Equipment Industries (Iran).

The Telegraph reports this morning that rifles imported from Austria by Iran have surfaced among insurgents in Iraq. Steyr-Mannlicher exported 800 of its high-powered HS50 models, capable of piercing body armor, to the National Iranian Police Association for their anti-narcotics efforts:
Austrian sniper rifles that were exported to Iran have been discovered in the hands of Iraqi terrorists, The Daily Telegraph has learned.  More than 100 of the.50 calibre weapons, capable of penetrating body armour, have been discovered by American troops during raids. The guns were part of a shipment of 800 rifles that the Austrian company, Steyr-Mannlicher, exported legally to Iran last year.

The sale was condemned in Washington and London because officials were worried that the weapons would be used by insurgents against British and American troops.

This appears to aubstantiate the findings of the Department of Defense, presented this weekend, that Iran has actively supplied weapons to the Iraqi insurgencies, and that those weapons have killed American troops. The DoD focused on the EFPs, explosive devices that can destroy vehicular armor, and counted 170 American deaths from the super-IEDs. The HS50s have also killed Americans, and seem designed to do so. The first American to die from the HS50 was shot 45 days after the Iranian police received their shipment.

US forces have captured over a hundred of the HS50s from the Iranian police shipment. That amounts to over 12% of the total number of rifles imported by Iran to fight drug dealers, a dodge that has grown more threadbare ever since the invasion of Iraq. The Iranians have not claimed -- yet -- that they managed to lose one-eighth of all the new rifles intended for their police, and the Iranian government was clearly the recipient of the arms. In fact, Austria defended the sale on that very point.

We can trace these weapons from its manufacturer directly to the Iranian government. The quantity in which they have been found in insurgent bases precludes any explanation that a few just got mislaid; they obviously have been transferred from an Iranian state organization to the terrorists in Iraq. It's the clearest evidence of Iranian involvement in attacks on Americans. The involvement of the mullahcracy is undeniable, and it is a direct retort to those who keep claiming that Iran has no stake in Iraqi instability.

Posted by Ed Morrissey on February 13, 2007

 
Toby Harnden in Washington -- 20 Aug 2006
 
Rooftop snipers cause carnage in Baghdad
Three factories in Iran are mass-producing the sophisticated roadside bombs used to kill British soldiers over the border in Iraq, it has been claimed.
 
The lethal bombs are being made by the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps at ordnance factory sites in Teheran, according to opponents of the country's theocratic regime.
 
Designed to penetrate heavy armour, the devices being manufactured in Iran involve the use of "explosively formed projectiles" or EFPs, also known as shaped charges, often triggered by infra-red beams.  The weapons can pierce the armour of British and American tanks and armoured personnel carriers and completely destroy armoured Land Rovers, which are used by the majority of British troops on operations in Iraq.
 
The Sunday Telegraph revealed in April that Iranian-made devices employing several EFPs, directed at different angles, were being used in Iraq.
 
And in June, this newspaper obtained the first picture of one of the Iraqi insurgent weapons - designed to fire an armour-piercing EFP - believed to have been responsible for the deaths of 17 British soldiers.
 
British Government scientists have already established that the mines are precision-made weapons thought to have been turned on a lathe by craftsmen trained in the manufacture of munitions.
 
Members of the Washington-based Iran Policy Committee have released the details about the three bomb factories gathered by the exile group, the National Council for Resistance in Iran (NCRI).
Iranians working for the NCRI pinpointed the facilities at three industrial sections called Sattari, Sayad Shirazi and Shiroodi. The factories are in the Lavizan neighbourhood in northern Teheran which is controlled by the country's defence ministry. The Sattari Industry specialises in anti-tank mines and operates under the aegis of the IRGC's al-Quds or Jerusalem Force.
 
Alireza Jafarzadeh, a former spokesman for the NCRI who in 2002 revealed the existence of two Iranian nuclear facilities at Natanz and Arak, said the devices were smuggled to Iraq via Iran's Shalamcheh border region.
 
"These sites are close to a military site, known as Lavizan 2, that is now being used for Iran's nuclear programme. It shows there is a high level of co-ordination by the Iranian regime, which wants to destabilise Iraq to make way for an Islamic Republic.
 
"This is not a ragtag workshop in some remote area. These sites are within an area that is one of the most sanitised parts of Teheran which is controlled by the
 
Iranian Defence Ministry."
 
He added that NCRI sources reported the movement of EFP devices from Teheran into Iraq as recently as June and that supplies of the devices, which began last
 
year, had been stepped up in recent months.
 
The infra-red triggering mechanism for roadside bombs was perfected by Hezbollah, under Iranian tutelage, against Israeli forces in the 1990s. Mr Jafarzadeh
 
said that in recent weeks Iran had facilitated the movement of cash from Shia groups in Iraq to Hezbollah.
 
Brig James Dutton, then the commander of British forces in southern Iraq, revealed last November that EFPs had led to a marked increase in the lethality of
 
attacks. He said the "technology certainly, and probably the equipment is coming through Iran". He added: "They come in various grades, these EFP improvised
 
explosive devices, from those that could be made in a relatively simple workshop to those that would require a reasonably sophisticated factory."
 
Last week, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, a former IRGC commander and the man believed by Western intelligence agencies to be in charge of Iranian
 
operations in Iraq, was asked in an interview with CBS television why Iran would furnish roadside bombs to Iraqi insurgents.
 
He ignored the question, instead responding: "We are saddened that the people of Iraq are being killed. I believe that the rulers of the US have to change their
 
mentality. I ask you, sir, what is the American army doing inside Iraq? Why are the Americans killing Iraqis on a daily basis?"
 
The factory disclosures come amid growing unease among soldiers in Iraq over what they believe is inadequate protection against terrorist booby traps.
  
Three Iranian factories 'mass-produce bombs to kill British in Iraq' - Telegraph Page 1 of 2
 
There are fears that soldiers' lives are being put at risk by senior officers insisting that troops must conduct patrols in armoured Land Rovers even though they provide little or no protection from such insurgent devices.  Pressure continues to mount on the Ministry of Defence to introduce a new range of military vehicles that will protect troops from the terrorist bombs in Iraq.
 
The last two soldiers to be killed by the device were Lieut Tom Mildinhall, 27, and L/Cpl Paul Farrelly, 28, both members of the 1st Queen's Dragoon Guards, who were killed on May 28 in a district north-west of Basra.
 
 Three Iranian factories 'mass-produce bombs to kill British in Iraq' - Telegraph Page 2 of 2
 

http://nypost.com/2015/08/04/irans-already-at-war-with-us-it-helped-kill-my-dad/.  Aug 19, 2015
The slogans have undoubtedly been focus-group tested, but they ignore history and offer a false choice between the two extremes. President Obama is attempting to frame the debate by pretending war would break out if Congress rejects the terms of the nuclear deal.  In fact, the opposite is true: We’re already at war with Iran, and have been for years. I know, because my father was killed by Iranian weapons in Iraq. Congressional ratification of a nuclear deal won’t bring peace. It’ll merely perpetuate a war that’s been raging for more than 30 years.

Iran’s war on Americans began in earnest with the 1979 Tehran hostage crisis, in which 52 Americans were rounded up and held hostage for more than a year. Since then, Iranian operatives have consistently attacked, killed and maimed Americans around the world.

In 1983, the Iranian regime sponsored three deadly attacks, beginning with the bombing of the US Embassy in Beirut, in which 17 Americans were killed.

This act was followed by the horrific bombing of the Beirut Marine barracks, killing 241 Marines. Another bombing of the Kuwait embassy, also linked to Iranian operatives, killed five more.
They didn’t stop there. In 1984, Iranians abducted and later murdered CIA station chief William F. Buckley.

Iranian operatives sponsored the 1984 terrorist attack on Kuwaiti Airlines Flight 221, in which two more Americans were murdered. And in 1996, Iranian operatives participated in the Khobar Towers attack in which 19 American servicemen were killed.

Beginning in 2003, and continuing for a decade, American forces in Iraq began encountering improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that killed or maimed countless soldiers during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

It didn’t take long for US investigators to uncover the source behind the bombs: Iranian operatives had an active pipeline of IED components and funding to help the insurgents build, deploy and detonate roadside bombs.

In September 2005, US Army Lt. Col. Leon James became one of the highest ranking American officers to be killed in action in Baghdad when one of those IEDs exploded. It killed two soldiers instantly and seriously wounded James, who died from his injuries two weeks later.

US intelligence analysis concluded that the bomb type that killed Lt. Col. James and others was consistent with those supplied by Iranian operatives.

And though I’m just a college student currently attending Purdue University, I’m intimately familiar with this subject: Leon James was my father.

So when President Obama jumps on a conference call that includes impressionable college students just like me, and tells them we have only two choices, diplomacy or war, it’s time to call him on it.
Iranian operatives, including high-ranking members of the current regime, have engaged in murder, mayhem and terrorism against the United States for three decades.

If ratified, the deal would give Iran billions in international aid and allow it to buy arms on the international market, guaranteeing that Iran’s sponsorship of worldwide terrorism will be conducted with state-of-the-art weapons and technology.

President Obama’s poorly negotiated nuclear deal is not an alternative to war, it’s the continuation of it.  Instead of ending the current conflict, the deal gives Iran access to the money and weapons needed to continue killing and maiming more Americans.

Members of Congress should vote no. And they shouldn’t be bullied into submission by Obama’s demonstrably false arguments.

Maria James is a student at Purdue University. She also volunteers with military nonprofit groups, including Gold Star Families.

http://www.militarytimes.com/story/military/capitol-hill/2015/07/14/iran-linked-to-deaths-of-500-us-troops-in-iraq-afghanistan/30131097/.
 Maria James
“I know that when I stand to honor the flag, I also stand in honor of all soldiers, and most mportantly, to the parents whose life created mine,” said Freedom Alliance Scholarship recipient Maria James, a freshman majoring in Political Science at Purdue University in Lafayette, Indiana.

Maria’s father, Lieutenant Colonel Leon James, served in the U.S. Army until he was killed in action in 2005, when an IED detonated on the side of his humvee during Operation Iraqi Freedom.  LTC James was awarded the Purple Heart and Bronze Star with a Combat “V” for his valor.

LeAnna and Sara Felts
 “My dad loved being a soldier,” said Freedom Alliance Scholarship recipient LeAnna Felts. “When he left for war, he had no regrets. He knew he may never make it back home — and he didn’t.” LeAnna’s sister, Sara, is also a scholarship recipient. Their father, Army Colonel Thomas Felts, Sr., was killed in Operation Iraqi Freedom, having served in the Army for 27 years.  While on patrol in Baghdad, Colonel Felts’ humvee was hit by an IED at an abandoned checkpoint, killing him and his gunner. Colonel Felts is the recipient of the Purple Heart and Bronze Star.

Officials: Iran behind advanced, lethal IED
Top levels of Iranian government said to be authorizing export of weapon
Feb. 11, 2007 - 09:06AM   |   Last Updated: Feb. 11, 2007 - 09:06AM
U.S. and Iraqi soldiers secure the scene of an IED attack against a U.S. armored vehicle in 2006. A military official said Sunday that some of the most destructive bombs being used in Iraq come from Iran, and that the "highest levels" of the Iranian government have been involved in supplying the weapon to insurgents.
U.S. and Iraqi soldiers secure the scene of an IED attack against a U.S. armored vehicle in 2006. A military official said Sunday that some of the most destructive bombs being used in Iraq come from Iran, and that the "highest levels" of the Iranian government have been involved in supplying the weapon to insurgents. (The Associated Press)

By Steven R. Hurst
The Associated Press


BAGHDAD — Military officials on Sunday accused the highest levels of the Iranian leadership of arming Shiite militants in Iraq with sophisticated armor-piercing roadside bombs that have killed more than 170 American forces.

The military command in Baghdad denied, however, that any newly smuggled Iranian weapons were behind the five U.S. military helicopter crashes since Jan. 20 — four that were shot out of the sky by insurgent gunfire.

A fifth crash has tentatively been blamed on mechanical failure. In the same period, two private security company helicopters also have crashed but the cause was unclear.
The deadly and highly sophisticated weapons the military said it traced to Iran are known as "explosively formed penetrators," or EFPs.

The presentation was the result of weeks of preparation and revisions as U.S. officials put together a package of material to support the Bush administration's claims of Iranian intercession on behalf of militant Iraqis fighting American forces.

Senior military officials in Baghdad said the display was prompted by the military's concern for "force protection," which, they said, was guaranteed under the United Nations resolution that authorizes American soldiers to be in Iraq.

Three senior military officials who explained the display said the "machining process" used in the construction of the deadly bombs had been traced to Iran.

The experts, who spoke to a large gathering of reporters on condition that they not be further identified, said the supply trail began with Iran's Revolutionary Guards Quds Force, which also is accused of arming the Hezbollah guerrilla army in Lebanon. The officials said the EFP weapon was first tested there.

The officials said the Revolutionary Guard and its Quds force report directly to Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.

The briefing on Iran was revised heavily after officials decided it was not ready for release as planned last month.

Senior officials in Washington — cautious after the drubbing the administration took for the faulty intelligence leading to the 2003 Iraq invasion — had held back because they were unhappy with the original presentation.

The display appeared to be part of the White House drive that has empowered U.S. forces in Iraq to use all means to curb Iranian influence in the country, including killing Iranian agents.
It included a power-point slide program and a handful of mortar shells and rocket-propelled grenades which the military officials said were made in Iran.

The centerpiece of the display, however, was a gray metal pipe about 10 inches long and 6 inches in diameter, the exterior casing of what the military said was an EFP, the roadside bomb that shoots out fist-sized wads of nearly molten copper that can penetrate the armor on an Abrams tank.

"A normal roadside bomb is like a shortgun blast. But these are like a rifle. They're focused and they're aimed. ... It's going to take anything out in its way, go in one side and out the other," said 1st Lt. Zane Galvach, 25, of Dayton, Ohio, a soldier with the Army's 2nd Division, based in Baghdad.
Skeptical congressional Democrats said the Bush administration should move cautiously before accusing Iran of fomenting a campaign of violence against troops in Iraq.

Senate Intelligence Committee member Ron Wyden, D-Ore., said "the administration is engaged in a drumbeat with Iran that is much like the drumbeat that they did with Iraq. We're going to insist on accountability."

On the Republican side, Sen. Trent Lott of Mississippi said he did not think the United States was trying to make a case for attacking Iran. Lott said the U.S. should try to stop the flow of munitions through Iran to Iraq but that "you do that by interdiction ... you don't do it by invasion."

The EFPs, as well as Iranian-made mortar shells and rocket-propelled grenades, have been supplied to what the military officials termed "rogue elements" of the Mahdi Army militia of anti-American Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr. He is a key backer of Shiite Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki.

The U.S. officials glossed over armaments having reached the other major Shiite militia organization, the Badr Brigade. It is the military wing of Iraq's most powerful Shiite political organization, the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq, whose leaders also have close ties to the U.S.
Many key government figures and members of the Shiite political establishment have deep ties to Iran, having spent decades there in exile during Saddam Hussein's rule. The Badr Brigade was formed and trained by Iran's Revolutionary Guard.

An intelligence analyst in the group said Iran was working through "multiple surrogates" — mainly in the Mahdi Army — to smuggle the EFPs into Iraq. He said most of the components are entering the country at crossing points near Amarah, the Iranian border city of Meran and the Basra area of southern Iraq.

The analyst said Iraq's Shiite-led government had been briefed on Iran's involvement and Iraqi officials had asked the Iranians to stop. Al-Maliki has said he told both the U.S. and Iran that he does not want his country turned into a proxy battlefield.

"We know more than we can show," said one of the senior officials, when pressed for tangible evidence that the EFPs were made in Iran.

U.S. officials have alleged for years that weapons were entering the country from Iran but had until Sunday stopped short of alleging involvement by top Iranian leaders.

During the briefing, a senior defense official said that one of the six Iranians detained in January in the northern city of Irbil was the operational commander of the Quds Force.

He was identified as Mohsin Chizari, who was apprehended after slipping back into Iraq after a 10-month absence, the officer said.

The Iranians were caught trying to flush documents down the toilet, he said. They had also tried to change their appearance by shaving their heads. Bags of their hair were found during the raid, he said.

The dates of manufacture on weapons found so far indicate they were made after fall of Saddam Hussein — mostly in 2006, the officials said.

http://justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/271545626-Iran-Deal-Text.pdf
 A 159-page PDF of Obama’s Iran nuke ‘deal’ was leaked online and you won’t believe what’s in it! My God, this is way worse than we thought! This is a complete nightmare. We got DUPED!
Paragraph 36 is the most chilling. In essence it says that IRAN CAN END THE DEAL WITH A 35 DAY NOTICE!

Under Paragraph 36, Iran can claim that any of the P5+1 is “not meeting its commitments” under the agreement. That triggers a 35-day set of meetings. Once that clock runs, Iran can claim the issue “has not been resolved to [its] satisfaction” and that it “deems” that the issue “constitutes significant non-performance.” Iran can then “cease performing its commitments under this JCPOA in whole or in part.” The agreement is done.

Once Iran has received its $150 billion and locked in long-term business contracts with the West, this quick exit could be an attractive option. So, too, could Iran bolt later on, removing the restrictions that remain after years ten and fifteen, or it could bolt under some scenario hard to foresee now. (The Hill)
 

Write your senator and congressman - say no to the Iran Nuclear Deal


Preface
Executive Summary
Introduction
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
Lebanese Hizbullah
Killing U.S. and Allied Troops in Iraq
Killing U.S. and Allied Troops in Afghanistan
Killing Americans and Allies Globally
Killing America’s Israeli Allies
Annex A – Hizbullah: Historic Killing
--> Killing Americans and their Allies: Iran’s Continuing War against the United States and the West
By Colonel (ret.) Richard Kemp and Major (ret.) Chris Driver-Williams
March 2015

Iranian-supplied weapons have led to casualties across the Western alliance for Britain, Israel, and the United States. Tehran has used its weapons deliveries to fuel a number of regional insurgencies, like the Houthi revolt in Yemen.
Iran’s Revolutionary Guard Corps and its Hizbullah proxy serve as expeditionary forces for Iran throughout the Middle East, with the latter coordinating terror attacks and fundraising activities in Latin America, Africa and Asia.
State-of-the-art roadside bombs — Explosively Formed Penetrators (EFPs) — from Iran in particular were undoubtedly the most lethal Iranian weapon used against British and American forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. Thus the analysis that follows by two former British officers is of extreme importance to anyone concerned with halting the destabilization of the Middle East and the future security of the region.
– Amb. Dore Gold

Executive Summary

  • Iranian military action, often working through proxies using terrorist tactics, has led to the deaths of well over a thousand American soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan over the last decade and a half.
  • Throughout the course of the Iraq campaign, a variety of weapons flowed into the country through direct purchases by the government of Iran. These included Explosively Formed Penetrators (EFPs), a shaped charge designed to penetrate armor. These weapons – often camouflaged as rocks – were identical to those employed by Hizbullah against Israeli forces. In 2006, the British Telegraph revealed that three Iranian factories were “mass producing” the roadside EFP bombs used to kill soldiers in Iraq.
  • In 2007, American troops discovered over 100 Austrian-made Steyr HS50 .50 caliber sniper rifles in Iraq. These high-powered rifles, which fire Iranian bullets, can pierce all in-service body armor from up to a mile and penetrate U.S. armored Humvee troop carriers. The rifles were part of a larger shipment legally purchased from the Austrian manufacturer under the justification that they would be used by Iranian police to combat drug smugglers.
  • Iran paid Taliban fighters $1,000 for each U.S. soldier they killed in Afghanistan. The Sunday Times reported that a Taliban operative received $18,000 from an Iranian firm in Kabul as reward for an attack in 2010 that killed several Afghan government troops and destroyed an American armored vehicle.
  • Iranian President Rouhani’s so-called “moderation” was displayed when he appointed Brig.-Gen. Hossein Dehghan to be minister of defense. Dehghan played a key role in the October 1983 suicide bomb attacks in Beirut in which 241 U.S. Marines and 58 French paratroopers were killed. Meanwhile, inside Iran, Rouhani has presided over a rise in repression, including executions, torture of political prisoners, and persecution of minorities.

Introduction

It appears that the recent framework agreement between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the P5+1, led by the U.S. Administration, will result in a deal that would allow Iran to become a nuclear-armed state. In this context, it is worth recalling the true nature of the Islamic Republic, in particular its recent track-record of violence against the United States and its allies. Both authors of this study had responsibilities for UK national intelligence assessment and crisis management during the period when this violence reached its peak in Iraq.
Many have forgotten, or perhaps never realized, that Iranian military action, often working through proxies, usually using terrorist tactics, has led to the deaths of well over a thousand American soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan over the last decade and a half. Does it make sense to risk allowing a regime that, since its inception, has been conducting a war against the United States and its allies to become a nuclear power?
Anti-Americanism helped fuel the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran. A violent anti-American doctrine that challenges any role for America in the Middle East, has been and remains the central focus of Iranian foreign policy. Since the revolution, Iran has waged and continues to wage war against the United States and its allies.
Iran has conducted this war primarily using the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Qods Force (IRGC-QF) and the Iranian proxy Lebanese Hizbullah. Both have been engaged in direct military action; and both have cultivated and supported military action abroad by other proxies, mainly through the use of terrorist bombings, abductions and assassinations. The killing of U.S. soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan serves a strategic goal (see later section “Killing Americans and Allies Globally”). However, Iranian violence has often been intended not to achieve any specific tactical or strategic objective, but simply to hurt the U.S. Most of these actions have been designed to be deniable, or at least unprovable.
Focusing primarily on events since 2001, this study will survey Iran’s war against the U.S. and its allies, using organs of the Iranian government as well as proxies.
The majority of Tehran’s killing of Americans was done in Iraq up until the U.S. withdrawal in 2011. Some occurred in Afghanistan until more recently, and likely continues today against America’s Afghan allies, and may again occur against U.S. forces that remain there. The current curtailment of this activity has not been due to a change of stance by Iran, but to the redeployment of U.S. and allied forces. Depending on future U.S. action in Iraq and Syria, it is quite likely that Iran will again orchestrate attacks against American troops, even as they are fighting the same enemy (the Islamic State).
Those who have seized upon President Hassan Rouhani as a “moderate” with whom business can be done by the West should exercise caution. He was “elected” president because that was the will of the Supreme Leader, Ali Hosseini Khamanei. The Supreme Leader controls the president and is head of the armed forces, responsible for national defense.
An indication of Rouhani’s “moderation,” and his own stance towards the U.S., occurred early on when he appointed Brigadier General Hossein Dehghan to be minister of defense. Dehghan played a key role in the October 1983 suicide bomb attacks in Beirut in which 241 U.S. Marines and 58 French paratroopers were killed.
Meanwhile, inside Iran, Rouhani has presided over a rise in repression, including executions, torture of political prisoners and persecution of minorities, according to an analysis published by human rights groups including Amnesty International.1

Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC)

Founded by Ayatollah Khomeini shortly after the overthrow of the Shah and the onset of the Islamic Revolution in 1978-1979, Iran’s IRGC has morphed from its initial, mainly ideological composition into a particularly powerful organ of Iran’s political system, the upper echelons of which tend to be drawn from the ranks of the IRGC. On September 2, 2007, for instance, Khamenei named Mohammad Ali Jafari as commander in chief of the IRGC. Along with other regime hardliners, Jafari has continued to oppose serious concessions in the context of a permanent nuclear agreement with the West.
The IRGC is comprised of an army, navy and air force. Iran frequently performs naval exercises in the Gulf as a show of strength and continues to develop “anti-access and area denial” capabilities to control the Strait of Hormuz and its approaches.  More specifically, the IRGC is developing increasingly lethal systems such as:
  • Advanced naval mines.
  • Coastal defense and anti-ship cruise and ballistic missiles.
  • Attack craft.2
Additionally, the IRGC boasts a paramilitary unit, comprised of approximately 10-20,000 individuals, known as the Qods Force. The strategic objective of IRGC-QF is to subvert Iran’s enemies and export the Iranian Revolution, a goal it attains largely by facilitating the delivery of weapons to pro-Iranian factions in Lebanon, Iraq, Syria, Persian Gulf states, Gaza and the West Bank, Afghanistan and Central Asia.3  In 2007, the Treasury Department designated IRGC-QF as a terrorism-supporting entity.
From 1988-1995, the commander of IRGC-QF was Brigadier General Ahmad Vahidi, who subsequently served as defense minister in 2009-2013. He led IRGC-QF when it allegedly facilitated two terrorist bombings of Israeli and Jewish targets in Buenos Aires, killing more than 100 people and wounding 540. Moreover, he allegedly recruited Hizbullah activists later accused of the June 1996 Khobar Towers bombing in which 19 U.S. servicemen lost their lives and 498 were wounded. He also orchestrated the assassination of Iranian dissident leaders in Europe in the early 1990s.
Since 1998, Major General Qassem Suleimani has led IRGC-QF, in which time he has created branches focused on intelligence, finance, politics, sabotage and special operations. With a direct and independent channel to Khamenei, Suleimani has successfully sought the assassination of political rivals, armed terrorist proxies and directed a network of insurgent groups in Iraq that killed over a thousand Americans.
In 2010, IRGC-QF and Hizbullah reportedly launched a new campaign against American and Israeli targets. The move was designed in apparent retaliation for the covert effort to deter the Iranian nuclear program, including the implementation of the Stuxnet virus and the death and disappearance of some prominent Iranian nuclear scientists.4 In the last five years, Suleimani has planned and directed attacks in Thailand, New Delhi, Lagos, Nairobi, and even the United States. The latter involved the dispatch of two Iranian agents to assassinate the Saudi Ambassador to the U.S. by bombing a restaurant a few miles from the White House.
IRI IRGC Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps Iran Flag
Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Logo

Lebanese Hizbullah

Hizbullah was formed in 1982 as the terrorist arm of the Islamic regime in Tehran. Ali Akbar Mohtashemi, Iran’s then-ambassador to Syria, helped create Hizbullah, a Lebanese-based Shiite Muslim terrorist organization. The group’s original goal was to establish an Islamic republic in Lebanon. The radical brand of Islam that Iran’s spiritual leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini espoused during his reign served as the inspiration for Hizbullah. The platform of Hizbullah pledges loyalty to Iran’s Supreme Leader and urges the establishment of an Islamic regime and the destruction of Israel.5
Iran has helped Hizbullah build a global terror network and a substantial military framework that is unparalleled in any other terrorist group in the world.  Iran frequently supports Hizbullah terror operations, often employing agents from the IRGC who operate clandestinely from Iranian embassies worldwide. It directs Hizbullah and provides it with personnel, terrorist training, intelligence, logistics and finances; and has supplied large quantities of high-grade weapons, including:
  • Advanced anti-tank missiles. Hizbullah’s anti-tank guided missiles include the Russian-made AT-3 Sagger, AT-4 Spigot, AT-5 Spandrel, AT-13 Saxhorn-2 ‘Metis-M’, АТ-14 Spriggan ‘Kornet’, Iranian-made Ra’ad (version of AT-3 Sagger), Towsan (version of AT-5 Spandrel), Toophan (version of BGM-71 TOW), and European-made MILAN missiles.
  • Katyusha [Grad] rockets. Hizbullah possesses the Katyusha-122 rocket, which has a range of 29 km (18 miles) and carries a 15-kg. (33-lb.) warhead.
  • Artillery cannons.
  • Anti-aircraft weapons including the ZU-23 artillery and the man-portable, shoulder-fired SA-7 and SA-18 surface-to-air missile (MANPADS).
  • Naval warfare materiel, including the C-802 anti-ship missile.
  • Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Iran has supplied Hizbullah with Mohajer-4 UAVs. These were reportedly flown successfully into Israeli airspace in November 2004 and April 2005.  A Hizbullah drone was shot down off the coast of northern Israel in April 2013.
  • Ground-to-ground long-range rockets. Hizbullah’s long-range missiles include the Iranian-made Fajr-3 and Fajr-5, the latter with a range of 75 km. (47 miles), enabling it to strike the Israeli port of Haifa; and the Zelzal-1, with an estimated 150 km (93 miles) range, which can reach Tel Aviv. Fajr-3 missiles have a range of 40 km (25 miles) and a 45-kg. (99-lb.) warhead, and Fajr-5 missiles also carry 45-kg. (99-lb.) warheads. In 2014 various news accounts reported Hizbullah had acquired heavy Scud missiles.
No terrorist organization in the world benefits from such significant, ongoing and regular supply of high-grade, sophisticated munitions.
As well as munitions, Iran provides approximately $100-200 million per year in funding to support Hizbullah.6,7 Hizbullah’s operational infrastructure was developed almost entirely with extensive Iranian backing including financial support, transportation of weapons and training of the organization’s activists. Hizbullah is seen as an Iranian forward unit in Lebanon and the ultimate product of the Islamic Revolution.
In an interview he gave to the Iranian newspaper Al-Sharq, Ali Akbar Mohtashemi (one of Khomeini’s loyalists, a founder of Hizbullah, former Iranian ambassador to Syria and Lebanon and former Iranian Minister of Interior) addressed the relationship between Hizbullah and Iran.  He stated that “Hizbullah is part of the Iranian rulership; Hizbullah is a central component of the Iranian military and security establishment; the ties between Iran and Hizbullah are far greater than those between a revolutionary regime
with a revolutionary party or organization outside its borders.”8
Iranian army RPG used by Hizbullah in Lebanon
Iranian army RPG used by Hizbullah in Lebanon
Hizbullah’s Shura Council makes strategic decisions regarding the organization’s terrorist activities locally, regionally and abroad, as well as all decisions concerning socio-political policy in the Lebanese, regional and international systems. It is comprised of nine permanent members, two of whom are always Iranian government or military officials.
Hizbullah continually demonstrates a deep and profound animosity towards the U.S. A central  facet of the  organization’s  ideology,  that enmity is  a  direct  result  of  the Iranian  revolutionary  outlook  that  defined  the  U.S. as the “Great  Satan.”  Hizbullah claims that the goal of American policy is to take control over the entire region and to strip the Arabs of their natural resources, with Israel being a means of achieving this plan.
Since the U.S. began its campaign against international terrorism following 9/11, Hizbullah has significantly increased its level of rhetoric, incitement and propaganda against the U.S. and its policies. Additional motivation came from the U.S. presence in Iraq, the Iranian nuclear program crisis and Israel’s Second Lebanon War in July and August 2006.  Indeed, the Second Lebanon War was perceived by Hizbullah leader Hassan Nasrallah as an additional phase in the American conspiracy intended to dominate the Middle East and usurp its resources.  Hizbullah views Israel as a proxy for America to attain its objectives in Lebanon. The chants  of “death  to  America”  and “death  to  Israel” are often  heard  during  Hizbullah  ceremonies  and  rallies  in  Lebanon,  in  Iran  and amongst the organization’s supporters around the world.
Many significant Hizbullah operations against the U.S. and its allies since 2001 are described below, along with the activities of other limbs and proxies of the Iranian regime. Historic Hizbullah attacks are outlined at Annex A.

Killing U.S. and Allied Troops in Iraq

Iran viewed the conflict in Iraq that began in 2003 as a part of its war with the United States and its Middle East allies. During the conflict, Iran supplied weapons, ammunition and other munitions to many of the extremist groups, both Sunni and Shia, which were attacking U.S. and Coalition forces. Iran also sent IRGC and Hizbullah officials to train, guide, direct and motivate those groups.9 Iran-backed Shiite militias used sophisticated weapons, including lethal armor-piercing versions of IEDs and rocket-boosted mortars, according to Adm. Mike Mullen, then Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff.10
ID card identifying an individual as an IRGC officer
ID card identifying an individual as an IRGC officer, recovered during a 2007 raid on the Irbil IRGC office in Iraq. The IRGC insignia is in the top right of the card. Hizbullah members worked closely with clandestine members of the IRGC in Iraq.
Iran’s support for Iraqi insurgents led to the deaths of an estimated 1,100 U.S. soldiers as well as other Coalition troops in Iraq, including British forces. Former U.S. ambassador to Iraq from 2010-2012, James Jeffery, said: “Up to a quarter of the American casualties and some of the more horrific incidents in which Americans were kidnapped…can be traced without doubt to these Iranian groups.”11
During his address to the United States Congress on September 11, 2007, General David Petraeus, Commanding General, Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF-I), noted that IRGC-QF had provided training, equipment, funding and direction to terrorists in the country. He said: “When we captured the leaders of these so-called special groups…and the deputy commander of a Lebanese Hizbullah department that was created to support their efforts in Iraq, we’ve learned a great deal about how Iran has, in fact, supported these elements and how those elements have carried out violent acts against our forces, Iraqi forces and innocent civilians.”12
In 2009, Petraeus said that Iran continued to fund, train, equip and direct Shiite militias and extremists in Iraq. He said there were daily attacks using signature weapons only made by Iran.13
Hizbullah funded radical Iraqi Shiite groups and established a clandestine network in Iraq with operatives that cooperated with local Iraqi as well as Iranian Shiite insurgents. Its operatives provided training to those insurgents, including training in the construction and use of shaped charge Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) that can penetrate heavily-armored vehicles, according to the U.S. State Department Country Reports on Terrorism.14  A number of Shiite insurgents traveled to Lebanon to undergo Hizbullah training in terrorist explosives and tactics. According to the U.S.-led Joint IED Defeat Organization (JIEDDO), by late 2007, IEDs had killed or wounded 21,200 Americans in Iraq, and the Hizbullah and IRGC-designed Explosively Formed Penetrators had become the most lethal roadside bomb ever seen in the country.
It is worth noting that apart from Al Qaida, Iranian-sponsored Hizbullah has been responsible for the deaths of more Americans than any other terror group.

Iranian Weapons and Weapon Components Used Against U.S. Troops in Iraq

Throughout the course of the Iraq campaign, a variety of weapons flowed into the country through direct purchases by the government of Iran. These included Explosively Formed Penetrators (EFPs). An EFP is a special type of shaped charge designed to penetrate armor effectively at standoff distances. As the name suggests, the effect of the explosive charge is to deform a metal plate into a slug or rod shape and accelerate it toward a target. Coalition forces first recognized that enemy groups were using Iranian-supplied EFPs to conduct attacks in Iraq in the middle of 2004. These weapons – often camouflaged as rocks – were identical to those employed by Hizbullah against Israeli forces in the area bordering southern Lebanon prior to 2004.  During 2006 the rate of use of these devices in Iraq grew by 150% and continued to rise month after month well into 2007.
Page showing EFP bombs uploaded to an Iranian military forum page
EFP bombs and their damage depicted on a webpage uploaded to an Iranian military forum page.
In 2006, the British newspaper, The Telegraph, revealed that three Iranian factories were “mass producing” the roadside EFP bombs used to kill soldiers in Iraq. “The factories are in the Lavizan neighborhood in northern Teheran which is controlled by the country’s defense ministry,” The Telegraph wrote.  “The Sattari Industry specializes in anti-tank mines and operates under the aegis of the IRGC’s al-Quds or Jerusalem Force.” 15
On October 16, 2009, the U.S. Secretary of State’s office sent a “Secret, Priority” cable to the U.S. consul in Ankara, Turkey, regarding “Turkey’s seizure of Iranian shipment of concern.” Earlier in the month, the cable said, Turkey “halted a convoy of three flatbed trucks enroute from Iran to a Lebanon-based company via Syria.  The trucks were suspected of carrying a furnace, a large hydraulic press, and a punch press – all of which we believe are intended for Hizbullah and used to produce advanced improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and explosively formed penetrators (EFPs).”
The secret State Department cable continued: “Given the strong relationship between Iran and the Lebanese Hizbullah, Iran’s history of provision of lethal aid to Lebanese Hizbullah, and the fact that the final destination of this cargo is Beirut, we feel strongly that Iran is trying to transfer an EFP production capability to Lebanese Hizbullah.  We also would like to emphasize that insurgents and terrorist organizations are using EFPs against U.S. forces in Iraq and Afghanistan, to significant effect.”
The shipment, the cable added, violated UN Security Council Resolution 1747 which “prohibits Iran from supplying, selling or transferring from its territory any arms or related materiel.  It also requires all states to prohibit the procurement of such items from Iran by their nationals, or using their flag vessels or aircraft, and whether or not such transfers originated in the territory of Iran.”16
General David Petraeus, U.S. commander in Iraq in 2007, accused Iran of providing advanced weaponry to militias in Iraq.  “They are responsible for providing the weapons, the training, the funding and in some cases the direction for operations that have indeed killed U.S. soldiers,” Petraeus stated.  “There is no question about the connection between Iran and these components, (the) attacks that have killed our soldiers.”17
Other weapons sent from Iran to insurgents in Iraq in 2007 included:
  • 81 mm mortars.
  • Repainted Type 63 107mm rockets imported into Iran from China and marked for sale in the open markets. The Type 63 HE-Fragmentation Spin-Stabilized Rocket is an electrically initiated rocket incorporating a high-explosive fragmentation warhead. It is normally fired from a trailer or truck-mounted multiple launcher, but may also be fired from single-tube launchers that can be mounted on small boats as well as from improvised launch sites such as sandbags and mounds of earth. It is a barrage weapon used against personnel and material.
  • RPG-7 shoulder-launched anti-armor rocket-propelled grenades.
  • Canisters filled with Iranian-manufactured Hadid 60mm mortar rounds.
  • 240mm rockets.
Insurgent-arms-cache
Insurgent arms cache, Baghdad 2008.  Note distinctive black heat guard (used on Iranian models) in place of the RPG-7’s traditional varnished-wood guard (bottom left).  Also note Iranian-made 107mm rockets (top left), 81mm mortars (top right) and 120mm mortars (top center).
Excerpt from a U.S. government slideshow showing the remains of Iranian mortar tail-fins recovered after attacks in Iraq in late 2006.  The fin configuration and design and lot number configuration identify them as Iranian munitions.
Excerpt from a U.S. government slideshow showing the remains of Iranian mortar tail-fins recovered after attacks in Iraq in late 2006. The fin configuration and design and lot number configuration identify them as Iranian munitions.
Also in 2007, American troops discovered over 100 Austrian made Steyr HS50 .50 caliber sniper rifles in Iraq.  These high-powered sniper rifles, which fire Iranian bullets, can pierce all in-service body armor from up to a mile and penetrate U.S. armored Humvee troop carriers.  The rifles were part of a larger shipment legally purchased from the Austrian manufacturer by Iran a year previously under the justification that they would be used by Iranian police to combat drug smugglers.  Although there was concern in both Washington and London at the time, the sale went through and the weapons were shipped to Iran. The presence of such weapons demonstrates a high level of sophistication in the Iranian arms flow into Iraq, as the purchase was made officially by the Iranians.18
American troops discovered over 100 Austrian-made Steyr HS50 .50 caliber sniper rifles in Iraq, part of a shipment of 800 legally purchased by Iran. The Iranian rifles were also provided to Hamas and Islamic Jihad fighters in Gaza, shown below training.
American troops discovered over 100 Austrian-made Steyr HS50 .50 caliber sniper rifles in Iraq, part of a shipment of 800 legally purchased by Iran. The Iranian rifles were also provided to Hamas and Islamic Jihad fighters in Gaza, shown below training.
Islamic Jihad snipers
Islamic Jihad snipers

Killing U.S. and Allied Troops in Afghanistan

Although they previously opposed the Taliban in Afghanistan during the conflict there since 2001, Iran has provided support to enhance Taliban capability to kill U.S. forces and their allies. It is not clear exactly when this support began. It has been conducted primarily through the IRGC as in Iraq, although on a smaller scale. Support has included provision of munitions, funding, training and allowing transit through Iranian territory to Taliban fighters.
U.S. and other NATO forces have intercepted shipments of Iranian-made arms in Afghanistan, including mortars, plastic explosives and the same type of EFPs that were used to attack U.S. and allied armored vehicles and to kill soldiers in Iraq.  William Wood, former U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (from 2007–2009) said in 2008: “There is no question that elements of the insurgency have received weapons from Iran.”19
According to the U.S. State Department in its Country Reports on Terrorism for 2009:20,21
Iran’s Qods Force provided training to the Taliban in Afghanistan on small unit tactics, small arms, explosives, and indirect fire weapons. Since at least 2006, Iran has arranged arms shipments to select Taliban members, including small arms and associated ammunition, rocket-propelled grenades, mortar rounds, 107mm rockets, and plastic explosives.
According to a RAND report: “Although Iran has traditionally backed Tajik and Shi’a groups opposed to the Taliban, its enmity with the United States and tensions over the nuclear program led it to provide measured support to the Taliban.”22
In 2008, UK Special Forces operators reportedly obtained evidence indicating that Iran was supplying components for EFPs to Afghan insurgents.23 Iran paid Taliban fighters $1,000 for each U.S. soldier they killed in Afghanistan. A man described by The Sunday Times as a “Taliban treasurer” had reportedly received $18,000 from an Iranian firm in Kabul as a reward for an attack in 2010 that killed several Afghan government troops and destroyed an American armored vehicle.24
The discovery of the first caches of Iranian-made weapons in Afghanistan in April 2008, according to an unnamed U.S. State Department official at the time, “sent shock waves through the system.”
In 2009 General Petraeus, then Commander of U.S. CENTCOM, confirmed that Iran was providing equipment, explosives and perhaps also funding to the Taliban in western Afghanistan. He considered that this was not because Tehran wanted the Taliban to succeed, but because they saw it as a way of hitting the U.S.25
In May 2010, General Stanley McChrystal, then NATO commander in Afghanistan, said that Iran was training Afghan fighters inside Iran. And in March of that year, Admiral Mike Mullen, Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, informed Congress that large-scale weapons shipments from Iran had been intercepted bound for Afghanistan.26
An uncorroborated media report in 2010, allegedly from a CIA source, suggested that the Taliban had been supplied by Iran with 36 Iranian shoulder-launched SA-7 surface-to-air missiles. An Afghan intelligence report at around the same time suggested that Iran had provided a re-supply of SA-7 batteries for these missiles.27 On May 30, 2007, a U.S. CH-47 Chinook was shot down in the upper Sangin valley, killing five American soldiers, one British soldier and one Canadian soldier. Until July 25, 2010, its downing was officially attributed to small arms and a rocket-propelled grenade. However, subsequent investigations by coalition forces revealed that it was downed by a man-portable air defense weapon (MANPAD).  Prior to that, Coalition forces generally downplayed or even denied any form of MANPAD attack by Taliban insurgents.28
Members of the Afghan Parliament have accused Iran of setting up Taliban bases in several Iranian cities, and that “Iran is directly involved in fanning ethnic, linguistic and sectarian tensions in Afghanistan.”29 In March 2012, Najibullah Kabuli, leader of the National Participation Front (NPF) of Afghanistan, which opposes the return of the Taliban to power, accused three senior leaders of the IRGC of plotting to assassinate him.30
Forty-eight 122mm rockets were seized in an ISAF raid in Nimruz province on February 5, 2011. British Foreign Secretary William Hague said: “The detailed technical analysis, together with the circumstances of the seizure, leave us in no doubt that the weaponry recovered came from Iran.”  General Petraeus, then Commander of NATO forces in Afghanistan, confirmed this during testimony to the Senate Armed Services Committee in March of that year.31
Petraeus asserted that the IRGC-QF had supplied forty-eight 122 millimeter rockets to a “known Taliban facilitator.” He told the committee that the rockets had twice the range of the 107 mm rockets normally used by the Taliban, with “twice the bursting radius.” He re-affirmed that Iran, without question, provides weapons, training and funding to the Taliban. He noted that such support was carefully measured to hit U.S. forces while not allowing the Taliban to succeed.32
Iranian weapons recovered in an ISAF raid on February 5, 2011, in Nimruz province, Afghanistan.
Iranian weapons recovered in an ISAF raid on 5 February 2011 in Nimruz province, Afghanistan.
In February 2014, the U.S. Treasury Department added to its list of global terrorists three IRGC officers and one “associate” who are involved in the “use of terrorism and intelligence operations as tools of influence against the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.” The designation of the four IRGC operatives “underscores Tehran’s use of terrorism and intelligence operations as tools of influence against the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan,” according to the Treasury Department.33
There has been no reliable estimate of the number of U.S. and allied soldiers killed in Afghanistan as a result of Iranian support to extremists there. The figure will be lower than the 1,100 U.S. deaths in Iraq that are estimated as attributable to Iran, but nevertheless, we can be certain that Iranian action has killed U.S. and allied troops in Afghanistan.

Killing Americans and Allies Globally

Iran’s sponsorship of terror is intended to achieve two strategic goals: first, undermining the U.S.-led effort to isolate Iran; and second, bridging the Shiite-Sunni divide in order to build a pan-Islamic, anti-American front. To achieve these objectives, Iran has backed an array of terrorist organizations. According to the U.S. State Department, in its Country Report on Terrorism for 2013, Iran has funded or facilitated terror activity in more than a dozen countries, stretching from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea and beyond.

Supporting Al Qaida

Although Iran is Shia and Al Qaida Sunni, and although they have different goals, Iran and Al Qaida have sometimes made common cause in view of their common adversary, the U.S. A shared willingness to cooperate against the U.S., despite their theological differences, has spawned an important tactical relationship.
An active Al Qaida network operates today in Iran with the full knowledge and support of the regime. Led by the Syrian-born Yasin al-Suri, this network organizes the movement of Al Qaida terrorists, documentation and funding from and through Iran to Pakistan, Afghanistan and the West. Al-Suri’s role was first exposed by the U.S. Treasury and State Departments in 2011. In December of that year, the U.S. government began offering a $10 million reward for information leading to al-Suri’s capture.34
Recent terrorist plots in Europe, the U.S., Canada, and against Western targets in Egypt have been linked to al-Suri’s Iran-based cells.35  Links have also been identified between this Al Qaida network in Iran and the 7/7 bombings in London as well as a planned attack against Heathrow Airport in 2006. Al-Suri’s group also supports the Al Qaida al-Nusrah Front in Syria by helping to transfer funds from donors in the Gulf and Kuwait.
In February 2012, the U.S. Treasury Department designated the Iranian Ministry of Intelligence and Security (MOIS) as a terrorist-sponsoring entity for, among other things, supporting Al Qaida and Al Qaida in Iraq’s operations.36 More recently, as documented by the U.S. State Department in its Country Report on Terrorism for 2013, Iran has repeatedly resisted numerous calls to transfer custody of its Al Qaida detainees to their countries of origin or third countries for trial.37

Islamic State

Closer to home, Al Qaida in Iraq, now known as the Islamic State (IS), has benefited not only from al-Suri’s network, but also from funding and weaponry supplied by the MOIS. There is a strong likelihood that this support continues today, even as Iranian forces aid opposing Shia militia groups in Iraq, and engage in battle against the IS. To squeeze out moderates in the center, as well as to hedge their bets against a range of potential outcomes in Syria and Iraq, Iran has effectively been facilitating both sides of the conflict.38

Attack Plans against the U.S.

In 2011 the IRGC attempted to assassinate the Saudi Arabian ambassador to the U.S. by blowing up a Washington restaurant. Iranian-born U.S. dual-national, Mansour Arbabsiar was arrested by U.S. authorities and pleaded guilty in a New York court to participating in the plot.39 U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder stated that the plot was “directed and approved by elements of the Iranian government and, specifically, senior members of the Qods Force.”40
Iranian-born U.S. dual-national Mansour Arbabsiar pleaded guilty to participating in the 2011 failed plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabia ambassador to the U.S. by blowing up a Washington restaurant.  He was sentenced to 25 years in prison. His accomplice, Gholam Shakuri, an Iran-based member of Iran’s Qods Force, remains at large. (Photo: Corpus Christi Sheriff’s Department)
Iranian-born U.S. dual-national Mansour Arbabsiar pleaded guilty to participating in the 2011 failed plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabia ambassador to the U.S. by blowing up a Washington restaurant.  He was sentenced to 25 years in prison. His accomplice, Gholam Shakuri, an Iran-based member of Iran’s Qods Force, remains at large. (Photo: Corpus Christi Sheriff’s Department)
In April 2013, a joint U.S.-Canada investigation thwarted a terrorist plot by two co-conspirators to derail a Canadian passenger train carrying passengers between Toronto and New York. One of the perpetrators, Chiheb Esseghaier, a Tunisian-born doctoral student, is believed to have travelled to Iran within two years of the attempted attack. Canadian police said the two men had received “direction and guidance” in the plot from “Al Qaida elements in Iran.”41
Repeated Congressional testimony from senior American security and defense officials has revealed Hizbullah cells are present in the U.S. They are known to be engaging in surveillance, fund-raising and acquisition of military technology. Notable examples include:
  • In 2002, two men in North Carolina were tried and convicted for providing material support to Hizbullah through racketeering and conspiracy to commit money laundering by channeling profits from cigarette smuggling to purchase military equipment for Hizbullah.42
  • In 2006, former FBI Director Robert Mueller confirmed that Hizbullah supporters attempted to cross the Mexican border into the U.S. Although the perpetrators were caught by the FBI, the cross-border attempt demonstrates Hizbullah’s willingness to insert operatives inside the U.S.43
  • In 2007, Texas Homeland Security Director Tom McCraw claimed that additional terrorists affiliated with Hamas and Hizbullah had been captured trying to cross the Mexican border.44
  • In 2007, the U.S. Department of Treasury declared that Goodwill Charitable Organization Inc. in Dearborn, Michigan, was a fundraising front for Hizbullah, closed the organization’s offices and froze its assets in U.S. financial institutions.45
Iran has regularly threatened to launch spectacular attacks, including suicide attacks, drone strikes and missile technology, against American assets.46 Iranian Naval Commander Rear Admiral Ali Fadavi, a member of the IRGC, said that Iran is constantly training and preparing for a clash with the U.S.47 In May 2014, IRGC Navy Forces Commander Brig. Gen. Ali Fadavi described targeted Iranian preparations to sink U.S. aircraft carriers:
Today the Americans and the entire world know that one of our operational goals is destroying U.S. Navy Forces….Aircraft carriers provide U.S. airpower in combat; therefore it is natural that we want to sink them….Americans are unaware of many matters. Their research centers analyzed the mock aircraft carrier in a common way. We have been building and sinking mock U.S. destroyers, frigates, and cruisers for years. We sank their models [mock-ups of destroyers, frigates, and cruisers] within 50 seconds even with various operational [counter] measures….We will execute this regarding the mock aircraft carrier as well because destroying, annihilating, and sinking U.S. boats has and will be in our plans.48
While Iran negotiates an agreement with the West on its nuclear program, it holds naval exercises near the Straits of Hormuz, sinking a mock-up of the USS Nimitz, an American aircraft carrier. (AFP Photo/Fars News/Hamed Jafarnejad)
While Iran negotiates an agreement with the West on its nuclear program, it holds naval exercises near the Straits of Hormuz, sinking a mock-up of the USS Nimitz, an American aircraft carrier. (AFP Photo/Fars News/Hamed Jafarnejad)
The threat level goes beyond mere rhetoric. On February 27, 2015, the IRGC announced that it test-fired a “new strategic weapon” on the final day of a large-scale naval and air defense drill, emphasizing the system would play a key role in any future battle against the U.S. Adm. Ali Fadavi, the IRGC’s naval chief, said, “The new weapon will have a very decisive role in adding our naval power in confronting threats, particular by the Great Satan, the United States.”49
In May 2014, the U.S. cyber security company, iSight Partners, uncovered a cyber-espionage campaign targeting hundreds of high-ranking U.S. and Israeli defense, diplomatic and other officials through social media networks.50 The hackers sought to obtain intelligence that could support weapon systems development, or provide insight into the U.S. military, the U.S.-Israel alliance or nuclear negotiations between Iran and the U.S. and other powers, the report said.51 Subsequent reports showed the sophistication of the scheme and suggests a government entity was behind the hacking – namely, the Iranian government.52 “It is such a complex and broad-reaching, long-term espionage campaign for the Iranians,” said Tiffany Jones, a senior vice president at iSight and a former National Security Council aide in the George W. Bush administration. “What they lack in technical sophistication, they make up in creativity and persistence.”53

Fueling the Conflict in Syria

Iran provides arms, financing, training and the facilitation of Iraqi Shia fighters to the Assad regime’s war, which has resulted in the death of more than 200,000 civilians in Syria. Iran has publicly admitted sending members of the IRGC to Syria in an advisory role. There are reports indicating some of these troops are IRGC-QF members, and that they have taken part in direct combat operations. In February 2013, senior IRGC-QF commander Brig. Gen. Hassan Shateri was killed in or near Zabadani, Syria. This was the first publicly announced death of a senior Iranian military official in Syria. In November 2013, IRGC-QF commander Mohammad Jamalizadeh Paghaleh was also killed in Aleppo, Syria. Subsequent Iranian media reports stated that Paghaleh was volunteering in Syria to defend the Sayyida Zainab mosque, which is located in Damascus. The location of Paghaleh’s death, over 200 miles away from the mosque he was reported to be protecting, indicates Iran’s intent to mask the operations of IRGC-QF forces in Syria.54
According to the U.S. State Department in its Country Report on Terrorism for 2013, Iran was facilitating the transfer of both Shiite and radical Sunni fighters into Syria, essentially funding both sides of the country’s conflict and targeting moderate Sunni rebel groups. The report also confirmed that Iran “trained, funded, and provided guidance to Iraqi Shia militant groups,” which had been done “despite [Iran’s] pledge to support Iraq’s stabilization.”
Tehran views the Syrian conflict as an extension of Iran’s war with the U.S. IRGC Commander Col. Mohammad Eskandari said, “IRGC commanders have prepared and equipped 42 divisions and 138 battalions in [Syria], and are fully prepared to fight the enemy….Today’s war in Syria is really our war with America.55 Iranian officials in June 2014 were reportedly trumpeting Assad’s anticipated reelection as a defeat for the U.S. and “celebrating not only the affirmation of Assad’s continued hold on power that the election represents, but also Iran’s role in sustaining him.”56

Killing America’s Israeli Allies

The Iranian government views its actions against Israel as serving two purposes: firstly, to destroy the Jewish State; and second, to attack one of the most important U.S. allies in its ongoing war against the U.S. Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said on July 23, 2014 that he believes there is only one solution for the “cancer” that is Israel: annihilation. “Israel’s annihilation is the only real cure.”57
According to the U.S. State Department in its Country Report on Terrorism for 2013, Tehran has “historically provided weapons, training and funding to Hamas and other Palestinian terrorist groups.”58 Israel has long asserted that Iran is arming Gaza terrorists with advanced weaponry, which is then used to target Israeli civilians.
Military equipment confiscated from MV Karine A in January 2002.  The vessel was found to be carrying 50 tons of weapons, including short-range Katyusha rockets, antitank missiles, and high explosives – all linked to Iran and Hizbullah.
Military equipment confiscated from MV Karine A in January 2002. The vessel was found to be carrying 50 tons of weapons, including short-range Katyusha rockets, antitank missiles, and high explosives – all linked to Iran and Hizbullah.
During the second intifada, in January 2002, Israel interdicted a ship carrying roughly 50 tons of Iranian-supplied arms bound for Palestinian militant groups, including Hamas in the Gaza Strip. Purchased by the Palestinian Authority (PA) in Lebanon, the Karine A had sailed from Sudan to Yemen and then to an Iranian island where it was loaded with 50 tons of war material including:59
  • 345 long- and short-range Katyusha rockets plus 10 launchers.
  • 29 mortar tubes and 1,545 shells.
  • 6 Sagger wire-guided anti-tank missile launchers and 10 missiles.
  • 51 RPG-7 anti-tank missiles and 328 rockets.
  • 30 high-powered Dragonov telescopic rifles.
  • 212 Kalashnikov assault rifles.
  • 2,000 kilograms of explosives.
  • 2 high-powered Yamaha engine speedboats with diving equipment.
  • 311 anti-personnel mines.
  • 211 anti-tank mines.
  • 700,000 rounds of small arms ammunition.
  • 735 hand grenades.
The Iranians agreed to deliver the weapons to Yasser Arafat’s group in exchange for him allowing the IRGC to establish a foothold in Palestinian towns and cities of the West Bank and Gaza.60 Had the weapons successfully entered Gaza, Hamas would have been capable of saturation-bombing major Israeli population centers and transportation arteries.
Iran continues to facilitate the flow of weapons into Gaza. In March 2014, the Israel Navy boarded and seized the Klos-C, a Panamanian-flagged Iranian arms ship carrying, among other things, advanced M302 missiles bound for the Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip and two million kilograms of Iranian cement for Hamas’ attack tunnels. From Syria the missiles had apparently traveled through Iran and Iraq before being intercepted by Israel on the high seas. M302 missiles have a range of 200 km., enabling any group that possessed them to reach across Israel. Hamas has fired such missiles at Tel Aviv and cities in the north of Israel.61
 Map depicting the range of Hamas rocket fire from the Gaza Strip, courtesy of the IDF.
Map depicting the range of Hamas rocket fire from the Gaza Strip, courtesy of the IDF.
On November 21, 2012, Iran admitted supplying the technologies behind the construction of Fajr-5 missiles, which have a range of up to 75 km., but denied any direct arms supplies.62 Ali Larijani, speaker of the Iranian parliament, said his country was “honored” to help Palestinians with “material and military aspects.”63 However, a panel of UN experts has concluded that “a shipment of rockets and other weapons seized by Israel came from Iran and represents a violation of the UN arms embargo on Tehran.”64 The report specifically cites the March 2014 interdiction of the Klos-C. On August 4, 2014, senior Iranian officials, including IRGC commander Mohammad Ali Jafari, boasted that Tehran had supplied Hamas with military aid to use against Israel.65 “The Zionist regime will collapse soon as a result of the unity among Shia and Sunni Muslims and we are ready for that day,” he said.66
On March 5, 2014 an Israeli Navy task force seized the Iranian-owned merchant vessel Klos-C that had set sail from Iran, heading for Port Sudan via Iraq.  On board, the commandos found long-range missiles concealed in containers full of Iranian bags marked as Portland cement. (Photo credit: IDF Spokesman)
On March 5, 2014 an Israeli Navy task force seized the Iranian-owned merchant vessel Klos-C that had set sail from Iran, heading for Port Sudan via Iraq. On board, the commandos found long-range missiles concealed in containers full of Iranian bags marked as Portland cement. (Photo credit: IDF Spokesman)
The former head of Israel’s navy, Vice Admiral Eliezer Marom, said that Iran was the leading arms smuggler to the Middle East, and that his country was engaged in an “ongoing secret war between Israel and terrorist organizations and the evil axis led by Iran,” to fight that threat.67  On November 4, 2009, the Israeli Navy seized the MV Francop cargo ship in the eastern Mediterranean Sea along with its cargo of weapons allegedly bound from Iran to Hizbullah. The arms shipment, which weighed 320 tons and was held in containers marked with Iranian shipping codes, contained:
  • 9,000 mortar shells.
  • Several thousand 107-mm Katyusha rockets with a 15-km. range.
  • 600 Russian-made 122-mm rockets with a 40-km. range.
  • Hundreds of thousands of Kalashnikov bullets.68
According to retired Israel Defense Forces Lt. Col. Michael Segall, Iran and Gaza-based terrorist organizations took advantage of periods of calm to rebuild their terrorist infrastructure and build arsenals capable of reaching most of Israel, as seen during the 2014 Gaza War.69 With no Arab states stepping forward to offer support for Hamas, Iran stepped in to fill the vacuum.70
On November 4, 2009 the Israeli Navy seized the MV Francop cargo ship in the eastern Mediterranean Sea along with its 320-ton cargo of weapons allegedly bound from Iran to Hizbullah. (Photo credit: IDF Spokesman)
On November 4, 2009 the Israeli Navy seized the MV Francop cargo ship in the eastern Mediterranean Sea along with its 320-ton cargo of weapons allegedly bound from Iran to Hizbullah. (Photo credit: IDF Spokesman)
A significant number of the rocket attacks from Gaza against Israel before and during the Gaza conflicts in 2008-09, 2012 and 2014 were enabled by Iranian supply of munitions and funds to Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad and other groups. There was a period of friction between Hamas and Hizbullah, because Hamas endorsed a revolt against the regime of Bashar al-Assad, depriving Assad of an important Sunni Muslim supporter. However, meetings between Hamas and Hizbullah, including with Hizbullah Chief Hassan Nasrallah, have indicated a renewal of cooperation and thereby of Iranian support for and influence on Hamas.71,72
In the Golan Heights the IRGC is seeking to build another front from which to direct attacks against Israel. The IRGC has attempted to establish a fusion of Iranian and Hizbullah forces to conduct cross border raids against IDF troops from neighboring Syria. An Israeli drone attack in southern Syria killed six Hizbullah and IRGC personnel involved in this plan — including an Iranian senior general and senior Hizbullah commander Jihad Mugniyeh, the son of the late external operations chief for Hizbullah. IRGC-QF leader Qassem Soleimani dispatched two officers to Lebanon to facilitate a revenge attack. On January 28, 2015, Hizbullah fired five anti-tank guided missiles at an Israeli army convoy on Mount Dov, killing two Israeli soldiers.

Beyond the Region

Hizbullah, probably under Iran’s direction and certainly with Iran’s approval, has also launched other attacks against Israel outside the Middle East.
In 2012, a bus carrying Israeli tourists at the Sarafovo Airport in Burgas, Bulgaria, was bombed. Five Israelis and the Bulgarian driver were killed and 32 Israelis were wounded.73 Bulgaria’s Chief Prosecutor Sotir Tsatsarov announced the identities of two suspects, Australian citizen Meliad Farah, 32, also known as Hussein Hussein, and 25-year-old Hassan El Hajj Hassan, a Canadian citizen. The suspects are alleged by the prosecutors to be members of the armed wing of Hizbullah.74
Following the Burgas bus bombing investigation, the Bulgarian government found Hizbullah and Iran responsible for the attack.
Following the Burgas bus bombing investigation, the Bulgarian government found Hizbullah and Iran responsible for the attack.
In March 2012, U.S. and Israeli officials were among those targeted for assassination by a group of IRGC-linked terrorists arrested in Baku, Azerbaijan. The attempts were part of a broader campaign by Iran-linked operatives to kill foreign diplomats in at least seven countries over a span of 13 months.
Weapons and ammunition seized in March 2002 from IRGC-linked terrorists who planned to assassinate U.S. and Israeli officials in Baku, Azerbaijan.
Weapons and ammunition seized in March 2002 from IRGC-linked terrorists who planned to assassinate U.S. and Israeli officials in Baku, Azerbaijan.

ANNEX A – HIZBULLAH: HISTORIC KILLING

Hizbullah has a lengthy track record of attacks against the U.S. and its allies. This annex outlines attacks before 2001 in which Hizbullah’s involvement is known or suspected.  In these attacks, a total of 442 people were killed, including 286 Americans. More than 1,030 were wounded.
  • From 1980-1988 the U.S. supported Saddam Hussein in the Iran-Iraq war. During that time, 96 foreign nationals (including 30 Westerners) were taken hostage, mainly by Hizbullah, in systematic abductions. Iran then used the hostages as leverage to obtain arms from the Reagan administration.75
  • In 1983 Hizbullah bombed the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, killing 63 people including 17 Americans and wounding more than 80. Hizbullah operatives were responsible for the bombing and received both financial and logistical support from Tehran. The attack constituted the deadliest terror attack on Americans outside of U.S. soil until the U.S. marine barracks bombing six months later.76
U.S. Embassy in Beirut.  The attack constituted the deadliest terror attack on Americans outside of U.S. soil.
U.S. Embassy in Beirut. The attack constituted the deadliest terror attack on Americans outside of U.S. soil.
  • In 1983, Hizbullah bombed a U.S. marine barracks in Beirut, Lebanon, killing 241 U.S. servicemen and wounding more than 100. The bombing – which consisted of 15,000-21,000 pounds of TNT – was the “largest non-nuclear explosion that had ever been detonated on the face of the Earth.”77
The U.S. Marines HQ immediately following the huge detonation in Oct. 1983. “The largest non-nuclear explosion that had ever been detonated on the face of the Earth.” Although Hizbullah and IRGC were believed to have planned and executed the attack, no arrests were ever made.
The U.S. Marines HQ immediately following the huge detonation in Oct. 1983. “The largest non-nuclear explosion that had ever been detonated on the face of the Earth.” Although Hizbullah and IRGC were believed to have planned and executed the attack, no arrests were ever made.
  • In 1984, CIA Beirut Station Chief William F. Buckley was kidnapped outside his apartment and whisked to a terrorist-safe house. The U.S. Embassy received a package containing a video of the kidnapped CIA officer. In it, Buckley was shown lying on the floor, appearing beaten and naked and holding a file marked “Top Secret” to cover his genitals. Another video was sent less than a month later showing Buckley in an even worse condition. CIA experts concluded he was being regularly drugged, had undergone long periods of torture and was being held in a makeshift cell with no light. This was the work of Hizbullah leader Imad Mughniyeh.78 Buckley is believed by the CIA to have died in captivity.
  • In 1984, Kuwait Airways Flight 221 from Kuwait to Pakistan was hijacked and diverted to Tehran. The hijackers demanded the release of the “Kuwait 17,” seventeen terrorists convicted by Kuwait for participation in the bombing of the U.S. Embassy there. The hijackers killed two American officials from the U.S. Agency for International Development. Iran arrested the hijackers, saying they would be brought to trial. The trial never took place, however, and the hijackers were allowed to leave the country.79
  • In 1985, TWA Flight 847 was hijacked. Terrorists aboard the plane, en route from Athens to Rome, forced it to land in Beirut, Lebanon, where the hijackers held the plane for 17 days. They demanded the release of the “Kuwait 17” as well as the release of 700 fellow Shiite Muslim prisoners held in Israeli prisons and in prisons in southern Lebanon run by the Israeli-backed South Lebanon Army. When these demands weren’t met, Robert Dean Stethem, a U.S. Navy SEAL diver and passenger on the plan, was forced to kneel and was then shot in the head. His body was dumped on the tarmac.80
The Captain of TWA Flight 847 held at gunpoint by Hizbullah leader Imad Mughniyeh.  When the terrorists’ demands weren’t met, Robert Dean Stethem, a U.S. Navy SEAL diver, was executed by the Iranian-backed hijackers.
The Captain of TWA Flight 847 held at gunpoint by Hizbullah leader Imad Mughniyeh. When the terrorists’ demands weren’t met, Robert Dean Stethem, a U.S. Navy SEAL diver, was executed by the Iranian-backed hijackers.
  • In 1988, U.S. Marine Lt. Col. William Richard Higgins was kidnapped, tortured and murdered. Higgins was driving on a coastal highway in southern Lebanon, when he was pulled from his jeep by Iranian-backed terrorists. About a year later, his kidnappers released a videotape of him bound and gagged, dangling from a rope on a makeshift gallows. He was declared dead on July 6, 1990, and his remains were dumped on a dusty street in Beirut on Dec. 23, 1991.81
  • In 1992 the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina was bombed, killing 29 and wounding 250. In 2008 Judge Ellen Huvelle ruled that Tehran must pay $63 million to the family of an Israeli diplomat who was killed in the attack. She said the bombing was carried out by Hizbullah and could not have taken place without assistance from Iran.82
  • In 1994 the seven-story Jewish-Argentine Mutual Association (AMIA) community center in Buenos Aires, Argentina, was bombed. This is considered the deadliest attack in Argentina’s history, killing 85 and wounding 300. Mohsen Rezai and Ali Akbar Velayati, who are believed to have planned the attack, were among the eight candidates approved for the 2013 presidential election by Iran’s Guardian Council to succeed Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.83
  • In 1996 Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia was bombed, killing 23 Americans, including 17 U.S. servicemen, and wounding more than 300. In 1996 a U.S. federal judge ruled that Iran is responsible for the bombing and ordered that the government pay $254 million to the families of the 17 American servicemen who died in the attack.84
The 1996 Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia.  The 9/11 Commission concluded that Hizbullah, with the support of the Iranian regime, was the perpetrator.
The 1996 Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia. The 9/11 Commission concluded that Hizbullah, with the support of the Iranian regime, was the perpetrator.

About the Authors

Colonel (ret.) Richard Kemp
Colonel Richard Kemp has been actively involved in fighting terrorists around the globe for 35 years. He served as Commander of British Forces in Afghanistan with responsibility for counter insurgency operations, disarmament and reintegration programs, development and training of the Afghan national security forces, reconstruction and defense diplomacy. He set up a joint counter-terrorist operation with U.S., Canadian and Afghan forces that achieved major operational success against Al Qaida terrorists in Kabul.
Colonel Kemp was an active member of the groundbreaking UK-U.S. Joint International Security Strategy Group. He headed the Joint Intelligence Committee’s international and domestic terrorism team and the Iraq politics and security team, responsible for UK national intelligence assessments. Among his responsibilities were intelligence assessments on Iranian-linked terrorism against British, American and other forces.
Previously Colonel Kemp completed a total of 14 active duty tours as a military commander in Northern Ireland and in many global hotspots. Working alongside U.S. forces, he took part in the liberation of Kuwait in 1991. He commanded British troops in the United Nations Protection Force in Bosnia and was counter-terrorism adviser to the Macedonian government. He was made Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) for his work on the July 2005 London bombings and in Iraq; Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) for intelligence work in Northern Ireland; and was awarded the Queen’s Commendation for Bravery for his action during the Bosnia conflict.
He has commented frequently on Israel’s counter-terrorism actions in Gaza and stated about the Israel Defense Forces: “No army in the world acts with as much discretion and great care as the IDF in order to minimize damage. The U.S. and the UK are careful, but not as much as Israel.”
Major (Ret.) Chris Driver-Williams
Chris Driver-Williams has served 25 years in the British military and in private consulting in counter-terrorism, national infrastructure protection, blast and explosive engineering, and security and risk management.
He spent the majority of his military career as a high threat bomb disposal operator in the British Army and during that time he served with a variety of specialist counter-terrorism units including four years with the UK Special Forces. During his military career he deployed to the Balkans, Northern Ireland, Colombia, Afghanistan and Iraq, and for his actions during an Iraq bomb disposal tour he was awarded the Queen’s Gallantry Medal. He rounded off his military career as an intelligence officer, and at the time of the 2005 London suicide bombings, he played an instrumental role at COBR-A, the British Cabinet Office’s emergency response committee.
Research by Joseph Raskas

Notes

Cover photo: A U. S. Stryker vehicle lies on its side following a buried IED blast in Iraq in 2007.
http://p.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/feb/3/iranian-executions-spiking-despite-thaw-with-west-/#.UvD7uNi84tI.facebook
2 Department of Defense. Unclassified Executive Summary. “Annual Report on Military Power of Iran.” January 2014
3 http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2013/05/210145.htm
4 http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2013/09/30/the-shadow-commander
http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/open-letter-Hizbullah-program/p30967
http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/iran-and-Hizbullah-significance-of-the-francop-interception
http://www.foxnews.com/projects/pdf/IranReportUnclassified.pdf
8 https://understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/20080215_IranianInfluence.pdf p. 11.
http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/reports/IraqReport06.pdf
10 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/07/07/iranian-weapons-iraq-us-troops_n_892399.html
11 http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2010/08/27/117757.html
12 Bowers, Carol (2007-09-11). “Iran Playing ‘Destabilizing Role’ in Iraq”. US Department of Defense.
13 http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/Afghanistan/gen-petraeus-iran-backing-iraq-militias-afghan-taliban/story?id=9346173
14 http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf
15 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/1526809/Three-Iranian-factories-mass-produce-bombs-to-kill-British-in-Iraq.html
16 https://wikileaks.org/cable/2009/10/09STATE107705.html
17 http://mobile.reuters.com/article/idUSL0759750920071007?irpc=932
18 Iraq Report: Institute for the Study of War, Aug 2007
19 http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1716579,00.html
20 http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/crt/2009/index.htm
21 http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2010/08/state_department_ira.php
22 http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/occasional_papers/2011/RAND_OP322.pdf
23 http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2008/jun/22/military.afghanistan?gusrc=rss&feed=uknews
24 http://www.nbcnews.com/id/39014669/ns/world_news-south_and_central_asia/t/report-iran-pays-each-us-soldier-killed-taliban/#.U_YxRvldWAg
25 http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/Afghanistan/gen-petraeus-iran-backing-iraq-militias-afghan-taliban/story?id=9346173
26 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/10/world/middleeast/10iran.html?_r=0
27 http://blog.washingtonpost.com/spy-talk/2010/08/intelligence_report_iranian_an.html?wprss=spy-talk
28 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/7910482/Wikileaks-Afghanistan-Taliban-used-heat-seeker-missiles-against-Nato-helicopter.html
29 http://www.pajhwok.com/en/2012/03/27/afghan-mps-fault-ahmadinejad%E2%80%99s-remarks
30 http://www.pajhwok.com/en/subscription-required?redirect_from=350660. Khwaja Baser Ahmad, ed. (4 March 2012). “Iran’s Revolutionary Guards plotting to kill me: Kabuli”. Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved 18 May 2013
31 http://www.wired.com/2011/03/petraeus-doesnt-sweat-irans-rockets-in-afghanistan/
32 http://www.wired.com/2011/03/petraeus-doesnt-sweat-irans-rockets-in-afghanistan/
33 http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/jl2287.aspx
34 http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/01/_as_head_al_qaeda.php
35 http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/01/_as_head_al_qaeda.php
36 http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/tg1424.aspx
37 Bill Gertz, “Al Qaida Terrorists Being Held by Iran,” , July 24, 2003.
38 http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/225050.pdf
39 http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209985.htm
40 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/12/us/us-accuses-iranians-of-plotting-to-kill-saudi-envoy.html?hp
41 http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/04/25/us-arrests-iran-idUSBRE93O1D320130425
42 http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/Hizbullah-finances-funding-the-party-of-god
43 “Lebanon: The Israel-Hamas-Hezbollah Conflict; CRS Report for Congress: Received Through the CRS Web.” Congressional Research Service.
44 Carlton, Jeff.  “Security Chief Says Terrorists Have BeenArrested on Texas Border.”  Associated Press State and Local Wire.  13 September 2007.
45 http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf
46 http://freebeacon.com/national-security/iran-threatens-u-s-navy-with-suicide-missions/
47 http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/7984.htm
48 http://www.irantracker.org/iran-news-round-May-6-2014
49 http://www.foxnews.com/world/2015/02/25/iran-revolutionary-guard-conducts-drills-against-replica-us-carrier/
50 http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/iranian-hackers-are-targeting-us-officials-through-social-networks-report-says/2014/05/28/7cb86672-e6ad-11e3-8f90-73e071f3d637_story.html?Post+generic=%3Ftid%3Dsm_twitter_washingtonpost
51 http://www.isightpartners.com/2014/05/newscaster-iranian-threat-inside-social-media/
52 http://www.timesofisrael.com/iranian-hackers-said-to-use-facebook-to-spy-on-israelis/#ixzz338GFCTLh
53 http://www.wsj.com/articles/iran-based-cyberspies-targeting-u-s-officials-report-alleges-1401335072
54 http://www.knowyourcountry.com/files/iranamaug14_4_.pdf
55 http://www.irantracker.org/iran-news-round-May-16-2014
56 http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/iran-claims-victory-with-assads-anticipated-win-in-syrian-election/2014/06/02/314f43a3-164a-4817-94bb-3b4483fa9dc6_story.html
57 http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/07/23/us-palestinians-israel-iran-idUSKBN0FS2E520140723
58 http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2013/224826.htm
59 http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/pressroom/2002/pages/seizing%20of%20the%20palestinian
%20weapons%20ship%20karine%20a%20-.aspx
60 http://www.nytimes.com/2002/01/12/world/seized-arms-would-have-vastly-extended-arafat-arsenal.html
61 http://bigstory.ap.org/article/israel-naval-raid-seizes-gaza-bound-iranian-arms
62 http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/nov/21/iran-admits-giving-hamas-technology-for-missiles/?page=all
63 http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/nov/21/iran-admits-giving-hamas-technology-for-missiles/?page=all
64 http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/06/28/us-iran-sanctions-un-idUSKBN0F300H20140628
65 http://www.latimes.com/world/middleeast/la-fg-israel-gaza-hamas-iran-20140804-story.html
66 http://www.latimes.com/world/middleeast/la-fg-israel-gaza-hamas-iran-20140804-story.html
67 http://www.jpost.com/Defense/Former-Navy-chief-Israel-in-a-secret-war-to-stop-Iranian-weapons-smuggling-to-terrorists-347682
68 http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/navyintercepts.html
69 http://jcpa.org/iranian-made-missiles-operation-protective-edge/
70 http://jcpa.org/the-father-of-irans-revolutionary-guards-missile-program/
71 http://www.jpost.com/Diplomacy-and-Politics/Hizbullahs-Nasrallah-held-talks-with-prominent-officials-in-Hamas-says-Beirut-paper-355079
72 http://www.haaretz.com/news/middle-east/.premium-1.592581
73 http://www.jpost.com/International/Bulgaria-names-2-suspects-in-Burgas-bus-bombing-321017
74 http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-24069506
75 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/target/etc/cron.html
76 http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2008/04/beirut-us-embas/
77 http://www.cbsnews.com/news/beirut-barracks-attack-remembered/
78 http://www.jpost.com/Features/Front-Lines/This-Week-in-History-CIA-agent-kidnapped-in-Lebanon
79 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/target/etc/cron.html
80 http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,142099,00.html
81 http://www.military.com/Content/MoreContent?file=ML_higgins_bkp
82 http://www.nysun.com/foreign/iran-ruled-responsible-for-92-israeli-embassy/71936/
83 http://www.jpost.com/Iranian-Threat/News/Two-AMIA-bombing-suspects-running-for-Iran-president-314128
84 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/22/AR2006122200455.html
- See more at: http://jcpa.org/killing-americans-allies-irans-war/#sthash.ffqAq1NK.dpuf

Iran linked to deaths of U.S. troops in Iraq, Afghanistan
By Andrew deGrandpre and Andrew Tilghman, Staff writers 11:15 a.m. EDT July 15, 2015

 At least 500 U.S. military deaths in Iraq and Afghanistan were directly linked to Iran and its support for anti-American militants — a newly disclosed statistic that offers grim context for the Obama administration's diplomatic deal with the Iranian regime aimed at curtailing the rogue nation's nuclear ambitions.

That figure underscores the controversy surrounding Washington's deal with Tehran, a long-sought goal for the president — but one that is fiercely opposed by many Republicans in Congress and other critics.

Many of those estimated 500 deaths occurred during the so-called surge in Iraq, when President George W. Bush ordered an influx of tens of thousands of troops to confront what had devolved into a sectarian civil war. Scores of American personnel were killed or maimed by highly lethal bombs, known as explosively formed penetrators, or EFPs, that Iran manufactured and supplied to Shiite militias across the border in Iraq. Many EFPs were powerful enough to destroy U.S. Humvees and breach tank hulls.

The startling number emerged last week as Sen. Tom Cotton, an Arkansas Republican and Army veteran who served as an infantry officer in Iraq and Afghanistan, pressed the issue at a confirmation hearing for Marine Corps Gen. Joseph Dunford, who is Obama's nominee to be chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

"Senator," Dunford responded, "I know the total number of soldiers, sailors, airmen and Marines that were killed by Iranian activities, and the number has been recently quoted as about 500. We weren't always able to attribute the casualties we had to Iranian activity, although many times we suspected it was Iranian activity even though we didn't necessarily have the forensics to support that."

The Defense Department does not specifically track casualties linked to Iran. The 500 estimate is a ballpark figure based on intelligence assessments, according to a Pentagon official familiar with Dunford's remarks.

The memory of those deaths was surely a factor in the caution signaled by the Pentagon on Tuesday afternoon, after Obama's announcement of this landmark deal between Iran, the U.S. and five other countries.

"As we implement this historic agreement, deterrence remains a major component of America's national security," Defense Secretary Ash Carter said in a statement. The U.S. military will remain ready to "check Iranian malign influence" and "utilize the military option if necessary," he added.

The Iranian-made EFPs first appeared in Iraq in 2005 and for years were the most lethal weapon that American troops faced during the eight-year Iraq war.

Unlike the typical improvised explosive devices U.S. troops encountered there, the EFPs used more sophisticated technology and required more skilled milling to produce. Also known as "shaped" explosives, they used curved copper plates to direct or "shape" the bomb blast.

The estimate of 500 American deaths is probably on the low side, said David "Bo" Bolgiano, a retired Army Special Forces officer who deployed to Iraq in 2006 and 2007 with the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization, an organization created by the Pentagon to rapidly address the number of casualties inflicted by roadside bombs and other IEDs.

"It's very difficult to quantify because, when you have an IED explosion that occurs in theater, you'd have to connect the dots and say, 'Well, we have three U.S. casualties tied to that IED,' and then that IED is tied to a specific copper-plated EFP from Iran. Often times, those forensics are missing," Bolgiano said in an interview.

"The big EFPs from Iran were fairly easy to identify because of the metallurgy involved and the copper plate formation," he said. "We had beyond-a-reasonable-doubt proof that Iran was the main supplier of the copper-plate EFPs," said Bolgiano.

Troops referred to them as "IEDs," but that's not completely accurate, Bolgiano said.

"Improvised is a little bit misleading because it makes it sound like a basement bomb-maker, and that was not the case. The shaped charges, the copper plates, the components were anything but unsophisticated. They were designed and at the level anything that any other non-Western government would have," Bolgiano said.

U.S. soldiers inspect a humvee damaged in 2009 by an improvised explosive in Iraq(Photo: David Rising, AP)

Cotton contends that number is much greater than 500, with still more American troops wounded in action as a result of Iran's influence on U.S. adversaries in both war zones.

A spokeswoman for the senator, Caroline Rabbit, said Tuesday that Iran "has the blood of hundreds of Americans on its hands and this deal only gives them billions of dollars to continue killing Americans." She was unable to provide Military Times with a more-detailed breakdown of those statistics, nor was the Pentagon.

American troops pulled out of Iraq in 2011 and returned last year as the Islamic State group overran Iraqi forces in places U.S. troops fought and died to liberate. In the eyes of many Iraq War veterans, to include some senior U.S. military officials, the Iraqi Shiite militias with links to Iran also have American blood on their hands.

In March, the top U.S. commander in the Middle East said he hoped the strategy for defeating Islamic State extremists will not involve an alliance with those groups.

"Three tours in Iraq commanding troops who were brutalized by some of these Shia militias ... I will not — and I hope we never — coordinate or cooperate with the Shia militias," Army Gen. Lloyd Austin, chief of U.S. Central Command, told the Senate Armed Services Committee last winter.

But after the demoralizing fall of the city of Ramadi in May, the U.S. military shifted its policy. Now, U.S. warplanes are launching airstrikes in support of some Shiite militias fighting the Islamic State under the command and control of the Iraqi government.

Dunford, who pending confirmation will become only the second Marine to serve as the U.S. military's top officer, referred to Iran as a "malign force," telling lawmakers that, despite a nuclear agreement, Iran will continue to exert its influence across the Middle East. One need look no farther than the Red Sea, where this past spring American naval vessels moved to block an Iranian arms shipment bound for rebel forces fighting the American-backed government in Yemen.

"If confirmed as the chairman," Dunford said, "I'll make sure that our leadership has a full range of military options to deal with Iranian activity."

In a statement, Cotton indicated he believes the deal with Iran is a mistake, principally because it comes with an infusion of "tens of billions of dollars to finance its sponsorship of terrorism against the United States and our allies."

"When I was a platoon leader in Iraq, my soldiers and I faced deadly roadside bombs, made and supplied by Iran," the statement read. "I tried to reassure them, but I could only tell them to hope it wasn't our day to die by Iran's roadside bombs. If Iran obtains a nuclear weapon, I fear the United States will only be able to hope it isn't our day to die by an Iranian nuclear bomb."


The Iran Deal Is Worse Than Stupid — It’s Dishonorable Read more at:

 

by David French July 15, 2015 3:29 PM

Yesterday, in the immediate aftermath of the Iran deal announcement, I posted a short comment noting that Iran is responsible for more than 1,000 American military deaths since 9/11. That’s just a number, but for many of us those numbers have names — the names of men we knew. I will never forget the horrible days in March and April 2008, when Iranian-made IEDs periodically closed even the main supply route into our small forward operating base. I’ll never forget the hero flights, standing at attention as brothers carried the still bodies of their fallen comrades to waiting Blackhawk helicopters. And I won’t forget about the people who are even now learning to walk, and eat, and live again — recovering from horrific wounds. Yesterday, I got an angry message from a friend from my Iraq deployment, a man whose vehicle was destroyed by an Iranian-made IED. Some of the blood on Iran’s hands is his own. The American people need to clearly understand what their president has done. He’s granting billions of dollars in sanctions relief to a nation that put bounties on the heads of American soldiers. Iran isn’t ending its war against America. It’s still working — every day — to kill Americans, including the Americans Barack Obama leads as commander-in-chief of our armed forces. There is no honor in this agreement. Moreover, there is no honor in leaving innocent Americans behind — to rot in Iranian prisons — so that President Obama can declare peace in his time. Compared to rewarding killers and turning its back on innocent American prisoners, the Obama administration’s lies about the negotiations are a small thing indeed. After all, dishonorable people do dishonorable things. Every member of Congress should be made to answer this question: Do you believe in rewarding regimes that place bounties on the heads of American soldiers? If so, then tell the American people. But don’t tell them that this agreement brings peace, because no reasonable definition of the term includes Iran’s deadly, 36-year-long terror campaign against America and its allies.

Read more at: http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/421228/undefined
 
Iran Is Responsible for More Than 1,000 American Military Deaths Since 9/11
by David French July 14, 2015 12:26 PM

I wanted to highlight this report, by Colonel (ret.) Richard Kemp and Major (ret.) Chris Driver-Williams, that comprehensively outlines Iran’s acts of war against the United States. Some lowlights: Iranian military action, often working through proxies using terrorist tactics, has led to the deaths of well over a thousand American soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan over the last decade and a half. Throughout the course of the Iraq campaign, a variety of weapons flowed into the country through direct purchases by the government of Iran. These included Explosively Formed Penetrators (EFPs), a shaped charge designed to penetrate armor. These weapons – often camouflaged as rocks – were identical to those employed by Hizbullah against Israeli forces. In 2006, the British Telegraph revealed that three Iranian factories were “mass producing” the roadside EFP bombs used to kill soldiers in Iraq . . . Iran paid Taliban fighters $1,000 for each U.S. soldier they killed in Afghanistan. The Sunday Times reported that a Taliban operative received $18,000 from an Iranian firm in Kabul as reward for an attack in 2010 that killed several Afghan government troops and destroyed an American armored vehicle. The Obama administration’s nuclear agreement is nothing more than a stimulus package for jihad. Billions of dollars will flow into the world’s worst terror-exporting country — a sworn enemy of the United States — and it will soon enough even have (legal) access to international conventional-arms markets. It can continue to export terror and even kill American soldiers without breaching the nuclear agreement. Until Iran stops trying to kill Americans and stops imprisoning Americans (including Saeed Abedini, a pastor prosecuted merely because of his Christian faith), how can any rational person trust its good faith?

Read more at: http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/421159/iran-responsible-more-1000-american-military-deaths-911-david-french

One weapon is the explosively formed penetrator (EFP), believed to be supplied by neighboring Iran. The EFP uses a passive infrared sensor to detect radiation from a warm passing object (such as a Humvee) and fires a semi-molten disc of heavy copper that can rip through several inches of armor. Homemade? Hardly. EFPs are either milled or punched with a 20-ton hydraulic press into a concave disc up to 11 inches in diameter. The copper projectile has a velocity of 2000 meters per second. Hidden in foam blocks disguised as roadside rocks or curbstones, the only unusual visible feature is a coin-sized hole for the infrared lens (which troops have dubbed 'The Eye of Allah.')



 Iran's Nuclear Timetable

June 17, 2015
Weapon Program: Nuclear
Mentioned Suspect Entities & Suppliers: 

Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant

Author: 

Valerie Lincy and Gary Milhollin

This report estimates how soon Iran could fuel a nuclear weapon. With its thousands of gas centrifuges, Iran now has the ability to enrich uranium to a grade suitable for use in nuclear reactors or to a higher grade suitable for use in nuclear warheads. The data below, which are based on reports from the International Atomic Energy Agency, describe Iran’s uranium stockpile, its centrifuges, and the rate at which its nuclear capacity is growing. [a]

Highlights:


  • By using the approximately 9,000 first generation centrifuges operating at its Natanz Fuel Enrichment Plant, Iran could theoretically produce enough weapon-grade uranium to fuel a single nuclear warhead in less than 2 months.  This timetable is longer if Iran operates fewer centrifuges, or feeds the machines with natural uranium rather than low-enriched uranium.

  • Iran's more advanced IR-2m centrifuges, about 1,000 of which are installed at Natanz, would allow Iran to produce weapon-grade uranium more quickly.

  • Iran's stockpile of low-enriched uranium is now sufficient, after further enrichment, to fuel approximately eight nuclear warheads.

  • Because Russia has a ten-year contract to fuel Iran’s only power reactor at Bushehr, Iran has no present need for enriched uranium to generate civilian nuclear energy.

  • Iran could fuel approximately 25 first generation implosion bombs if it had the ability to enrich the uranium needed to supply the Bushehr reactor annually.

Bomb potential of Iran's low-enriched uranium


  • Total amount of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) enriched to approximately 3.5 percent U-235 produced as of May 2015:
    14,937 kg [
    b]

  • Amount of this material ready for further enrichment (i.e., stored in gaseous form) as of May 2015:
    8,715 kg [
    c]

  • Amount theoretically needed to produce a bomb's worth of weapon-grade uranium metal:
    1,053 kg [
    d]

  • Number of first generation implosion bombs this 8,715 kilograms could fuel, if further enriched:
    8 [
    e]

  • Time needed to convert this  uranium to one bomb's worth of finished uranium metal enriched to 90 percent U-235:
    3 - 12 months [
    f]

  • Date by which Iran's  uranium stockpile probably was sufficient to fuel one first generation implosion bomb, if further enriched:
    February 2009 [
    g]

  • Approximate number of first generation IR-1 centrifuges being fed with UF6 at the Natanz Fuel Enrichment Plant, as of the last reported visit by IAEA inspectors:
    9,000 [
    h]

  • Number of months theoretically needed for these 9,000 centrifuges operating at their present  capacity to produce enough enriched uranium  for one bomb:
    1.6 [
    i]

Civilian need for this uranium


  • Approximate amount of low-enriched uranium needed annually to fuel Iran’s sole civilian power reactor at Bushehr:
    21 metric tons [
    j]

  • Percent of this uranium Russia will supply under a ten-year fuel contract:
    100 [
    k]

  • Number of years it would take the roughly 9,000 operating IR-1 centrifuges at Natanz to produce one year's worth of fuel for Bushehr:
    10.7 [
    l]

  • Approximate number of separative work units (amount of enrichment work)[m] Iran would need to generate in order to produce one year's worth of fuel for Bushehr:
    100,000 [
    n]

  • Number of IR-1 centrifuges Iran would need to operate in order to produce this level of work annually:
    128,000 [
    o]

  • Approximate number of first generation implosion bombs Iran could fuel if able to enrich the uranium needed to supply Bushehr annually:
    25 [
    p]

Iranian Nuclear Breakout Times Under Different Scenarios

If Iran feeds its IR-centrifuges with natural uranium and operates:

  • 9,000 centrifuges (the number now running):
    6.8 months [
    q]

  • 6,104 centrifuges (the number allowed to be installed under the framework agreement):
    10.1 months [
    r]

  • 5,060 centrifuges (the number allowed to operate under the framework agreement):
    1 year [
    s]

 If Iran feeds its IR-centrifuges with low-enriched uranium and operates: [t]

  • 9,000 centrifuges:
    1.6 months 

  • 6,104 centrifuges:
    2.4 months

  • 5,060 centrifuges:
    2.9 months
Comments

  • Before using uranium in a warhead, it must be enriched to weapon-grade (90 percent or more U-235) and processed into a metallic shape sufficient to explode in a chain reaction.

  • This assessment assumes that Iran would use 16 kg of weapon-grade uranium (~90 percent U-235) in the finished core of each nuclear weapon.  Sixteen kilograms are assumed to be sufficient for an implosion bomb.  This was the amount called for in the implosion device Saddam Hussein was trying to perfect in the 1980’s, and the design for such a device has circulated on the nuclear black market, to which Iran has had access.  Some experts believe that Iran could use less material, assuming Iran would accept a lower yield for each weapon.  According to these experts, Iran could use as few as seven kilograms of this material if Iran’s weapon developers possessed a “medium” level of skill, and if Iran were satisfied with an explosive yield slightly less than that of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan. [u] If Iran chose to use an amount smaller than 16 kg, the time required to make each weapon would be less than estimated here.  Or, in the amount of time estimated here, Iran could make a greater number of weapons.  Iran could decide not to use such a smaller amount of weapon-grade uranium if Iran wanted to have more confidence that its weapons would work, or if it wanted to reduce the size of its weapons by reducing the amount of high explosive required.

  • Iran has converted 337.2 kg of 20 percent enriched uranium gas (or 227.6 kg of uranium) into oxide form, producing 162.3 kg of uranium, some of which has been used to produce fuel for the Tehran Research Reactor.  If it is not irradiated in the reactor, this material could be returned to gaseous form and enriched to weapon grade.  However, it would not be sufficient to fuel more than one nuclear weapon and it is unclear how long it would take to convert and further enrich the material.

  • Uncertainties about the number of centrifuges that Iran is operating make it difficult to draw a conclusion about the performance of individual machines.  An increase or decrease in the production rate could be attributed to the fact that more machines were operating when IAEA inspectors were not present at the plant, rather than because the machines were operating more efficiently. [v]  A change in production rate could also be attributed to a decision by Iran to lower the output of its centrifuges.[w]

  • Following start-up, centrifuge cascades must be operated for a time without product withdrawal. This process is called passivation.

Growth of enrichment capacity at the Natanz Fuel Enrichment Plant 


Date of IAEA Inventory


IR-1 Centrifuges Being Fed with UF6


Other IR-1 Centrifuges Installed


17 Feb 2007

0

656

13 May 2007

1,312

820

19 Aug 2007

1,968

656

3 Nov 2007

2,952

0

12 Dec 2007

2,952

?

7 May 2008

3,280

2,624

30 Aug 2008

3,772

2,132

7 Nov 2008

3,772

2,132

1 Feb 2009

3,936

1,968

1 Jun 2009

4,920

2,296

12 Aug 2009

4,592

3,716

2 Nov 2009

3,936

4,920

31 Jan 2010

3,772

4,838

24 May 2010

3,936

4,592

28 Aug 2010

3,772

5,084

5 Nov 2010

4,816

3,610

16 Nov 2010

0

~ 8,426

22 Nov 2010

~4,592

~3,834

20 Feb 2011

~5,184

~2,816

14 May 2011

~5,860

~2,140

28 Aug 2011

~5,860

~2,140

2 Nov 2011

~6,208

~1,792

19 Feb 2012

8,808

348

19 May 2012

8,818

512

21 Aug 2012

9,156

270

10 Nov 2012

9,156

1,258

19 Feb 2013

~8,990

~3,680

15 May 2013

~8,990

~4,565

24 Aug 2013

9,156

6,260

9 Nov 2013

~8,800

~6,620

10 Feb 2014

~9,000

~6,420

14 May 2014

~9,000

~6,420

13 Aug 2014

~9,000

~6,420

15 Oct 2014

~9,000

~6,420

8 Feb 2015

9,156

6,264

17 May 2015

9,156

6,264

 


Date of IAEA Inventory


IR-2m Centrifuges Being Fed with UF6


IR-2m Centrifuges Installed

19 Feb 2013
0
180
15 May 2013
0
689
24 Aug 2013
0
1,008
9 Nov 2013
0
1,008

10 Feb 2014

0

1,008

14 May 2014

0

1,008

13 Aug 2014

0

1,008

15 Oct 2014

0

1,008

8 Feb 2015

0

1,008

17 May 2015

0

1,008

Footnotes: 


[a] The following estimates are based on information in quarterly reports by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which is responsible for nuclear inspections in Iran.  These quarterly reports are available here: http://www.iranwatch.org/authoring-agency/iaea-report.

[b] Iran continues to produce low-enriched UF6, which is allowed under the interim accord.  In all, Iran has produced 14,936.7 kg of this material, which includes 115.6 kg that was produced from the downblending of UF6 enriched to 20%.  About 40% of Iran’s low-enriched UF6 production has been either further enriched, or converted into oxide form.  According to the IAEA, Iran continues to produce low-enriched UF6 at the rate reported by the Agency in the past, which was estimated to be an average of 7.9 kg each day.

[c] Prior to the interim nuclear accord, Iran had used some of its stockpiled low-enriched UF6 (~3,400 kg) for the production of 20% enriched uranium gas.  Under the accord, this production has been suspended and Iran has downblended the 20% material to low-enriched UF6 or converted it to oxide form.  Iran is also using centrifuges that had been producing 20% enriched uranium gas for the production of low-enriched UF6.  In both cases, this has led to an increase in Iran’s stockpile of low-enriched UF6.  However, Iran has also begun converting a portion of its low-enriched UF6 stockpile accumulated since January 2014 (~2,720 kg) into oxide form, thus reducing the size of the stockpile.  As a result of these activities, Iran had approximately 8,715 kg of low-enriched UF6 as of May 2015, according to the IAEA.

[d] This is assuming uranium tails of 1% U-235, a feed assay of 3.5% U-235, a product assay of 90% U-235, a 20% loss of material during processing, and that 16 kg of finished uranium metal enriched to 90% are needed for a bomb.  See the Separative Work Unit (SWU) calculator published by URENCO, a European uranium enrichment consortium: web.archive.org/web/20021226100607/www.urenco.de/trennarbeit/swucal_e.html.

[e] If 1,053 kg of low-enriched uranium are required to produce a bomb’s worth of weapon-grade uranium (see note d), the 8,715 kg of low-enriched uranium in Iran’s stockpile as of May 2015 might be sufficient to fuel about eight first generation implosion bombs.

[f] The IAEA estimates the conversion time for low-enriched uranium to weapon-grade uranium metal to be approximately 3-12 months (www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/nvs-3-cd/PDF/NVS3_prn.pdf).

[g] According to the IAEA, Iran had produced about 1,010 kg of low-enriched UF6 by late January 2009.  Given the average daily production rate of this material at the time, Iran's stockpile probably contained the requisite 1,053 kg by the following month.

[h] As of May 2015, Iran was operating 54 cascades of approximately 9,000 first-generation IR-1 centrifuges (9,156 according to the IAEA) in Production Hall A of the Natanz Fuel Enrichment Plant.

[i] According to production data at the Natanz Fuel Enrichment Plant, Iran's IR-1 centrifuges have achieved an average annual output of about .78 Separative Work Units, or SWUs, per machine.  A SWU is a standard measure of the effort required to increase the concentration of the fissionable U-235 isotope within natural uranium.  Based on the assumptions set forth above (see note d), Iran would need approximately 955 SWUs to bring 1,053 kg of low-enriched UF6 to weapon grade.  If each of Iran's roughly 9,000 operating centrifuges produces an average of .78 SWUs per year, their total output over one year would be 7,020 SWUs, or 585 SWUs per month.  Thus, it would take about 1.6 months to produce 955 SWUs.

[j] A typical 1,000 MWe pressurized light water reactor of the type Iran is operating at Bushehr requires about 21 tons of low-enriched uranium fuel each year.  See the nuclear fuel cycle simulation system published by the IAEA (http://infcis.iaea.org/NFCSS/NFCSSMain.asp?RightP=Calculation&EPage=2&Refresh=0&ReactorType=1).

[k] Russia and Iran signed a nuclear fuel agreement in 1995.  Under the agreement, Russia committed to supplying fuel for Bushehr for ten years and Iran committed to returning the spent fuel to Russia. Reportedly, the original 1992 nuclear cooperation agreement between Russia and Iran stipulated that Russia would supply fuel for the Bushehr reactor “for the entire lifespan of the nuclear power plant.”  See Mark Hibbs, “Iran’s Russia Problem,” July 7, 2014. (http://www.iranfactfile.org/2014/07/07/us-russia-split-wont-sink-iran-talks/)

[l] Iran has achieved a low-enriched UF6 production rate of about 2,900 kg/year (7.9 kg/day), which contains 1,960 kg of uranium.  At this rate, to produce 21 metric tons of reactor-grade uranium would take 10.7 years.

[
m] The separative work unit, or SWU, is the standard measure of the effort required to increase the concentration of the fissionable U-235 isotope.  See http://urenco.com/index.php/content/89/glossary.

[
n] See the nuclear fuel cycle simulation system published by the IAEA (http://infcis.iaea.org/NFCSS/NFCSSMain.asp?RightP=Calculation&EPage=2&Refresh=0&ReactorType=1).

[
o] This result assumes that the efficiency level of each centrifuge stays at .78 SWU per machine (see note i).

[
p] To produce a bomb’s worth of highly enriched uranium, it takes approximately 4,000 SWUs.  If Iran were able to produce 100,000 SWUs annually, and directed that power toward making nuclear weapon fuel, it could make enough fuel for about 25 bombs.


[q] As of May 2015, Iran was operating 54 cascades of approximately 9,000 first-generation IR-1 centrifuges (9,156 according to the IAEA) in Production Hall A of the Natanz Fuel Enrichment Plant.  To produce a bomb's worth of highly enriched uranium from natural uranium, it takes approximately 4,000 Separative Work Units, or SWUs.  According to production data at the Natanz Fuel Enrichment Plant, Iran's IR-1 centrifuges have achieved an average annual output of about .78 SWUs per machine.  Thus, 9,000 centrifuges could produce fuel for one nuclear weapon from natural uranium in an estimated 6.8 months.

[r] According to the State Department’s fact sheet, “Parameters for a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action Regarding the Islamic Republic of Iran’s Nuclear Program,” released April 2, 2015, Iran will be limited to 6,104 IR-1 centrifuges installed under the agreement.  If these 6,104 centrifuges achieved an average annual output of .78 SWUs, Iran could produce fuel for one nuclear weapon from natural uranium in an estimated 10.1 months.

[s] According to the State Department’s fact sheet, “Parameters for a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action Regarding the Islamic Republic of Iran’s Nuclear Program,” released April 2, 2015, Iran will be limited to operating 5,060 IR-1 centrifuges under the agreement.  If these 5.060 centrifuges achieved an average annual output of .78 SWUs, Iran could produce fuel for one nuclear weapon from natural uranium in an estimated 10.1 months.

[t] See assumptions and calculations above.

[u] Thomas B. Cochran and Christopher E. Paine, “The Amount of Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium Needed for Pure Fission Nuclear Weapons,” (Washington, DC: Natural Resources Defense Council, revised April 13, 1995).

[v] See "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and Relevant Provisions of Security Council Resolutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran (GOV/2014/43)," International Atomic Energy Agency, September 5, 2014.

[w] See “ISIS Analysis of Safeguards Report,” Institute for Science and International Security,” February 19, 2015 (http://isis-online.org/uploads/isis-reports/documents/ISIS_Analysis_IAEA_Report_19February2015_Final.pdf).